This annotated bibliography of materials related to the education of catalogers and metadata specialists represents a long-term, complex learning environment for me. As I pursue my own education to become a 21st-century cataloger, I am also highly interested in the education of these librarians, currently, historically, and in the future; also, formally in graduate programs and post-graduate means of continuing education, such as on-the-job training and other forms of continuing education, formal and informal.
First and foremost, the reading of this literature to compile this bibliography constitutes a good education in its own right. By doing so, I have learned that the debates of practice versus theory, book versus other formats, and setting for the education of catalogers are all perennial questions that reach at least as far back as Melvil Dewey, among many other items of note. Secondly, to further my personal interests, and my professional education in this arena, the compilation of this bibliography represents an important step. Thirdly, it also serves as a nice way to tie together all of my classes this semester. Lastly, it serves as a nice personal motivational tool to learn many other useful things on my own.
In Metadata in Theory and Practice (LIS590MD) I have been learning how to take these citations and encode them in TEI, MODS, and simple Dublin Core (DC) with the express purpose of learning which formats are the most informationally rich, expedient, and useful. For my second project in Metadata, I had to encode ten of these items in one format (I chose MODS) and then crosswalk them into simple DC and then encode the lot into an OAI-PMH Static Repository. Our third assignment is to come up with our own metadata schema that is better for our purposes than what we have already used, or which is otherwise available. I have chosen to modify MODS into what I am tentatively calling “MODSultralite.”
My class in Indexing and Abstracting (LIS590ILE) has contributed to this effort primarily through its lectures and exercises on abstracting. The material we covered on citation databases also proved valuable to the longer-term thinking about this project.
My long-term goal is to make this annotated bibliography available to the larger community of educators, cataloging and metadata practitioners, and students via the Web. I believe that this could work well as an OAI-PMH Static Repository, but I would also like to be able to allow visitors to come to a web page where they are able to choose the citation format in which they would like the records (MLA, APA, Chicago,…), and the presentational form in which they would like them (PDF, Microsoft Word document, XML, HTML,….). This goal serves as a means by which to motivate me to learn the various technologies that enable this sort of service to users, either through formal education or individual learning. This semesters classes, particularly Metadata, have allowed me to take a large step in this direction. The next near-term goal is to learn XSLT to enable the automatic crosswalking of the records I would create in MODSultralite into simple DC, and then to learn to use it to compile both the new MODSultralite records and the newly constructed simple DC records into the static repository page automatically. Further knowledge of XSLT, and related technologies, would allow me to realize my goal of providing these records in various citation formats and presentational formats on-the-fly. That is certainly a much longer-term goal, but I find it to be an exciting one and a good motivator.
In the process off learning all of this and incorporating it into an annotated bibliography, I will certainly learn much of value regarding these various Web-based technologies, but also about the various citation formats and their strengths and weaknesses, along with which metadata schemas are needed to enable this level of service for this information format. I will also read a large quantity of the literature related to the training of catalogers and metadata specialists. This can only be of great benefit in my own quest to become an outstanding 21st-century cataloger, and to then assist, in the manner best suited to my personal talents and proclivities, others in their beginning or continuing quest to become the best that they can.
The ending string (mrl date) in each entry identifies the author of the annotation, by initials, and the date that the annotation was written. At this point, all annotations have been written by me. This document and its accompanying annotations may be freely distributed, but the annotations are currently under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for further details.
Beghtol, Clare. "Itself an Education": Classification Systems, Theory, and Research in the Information Studies Curriculum." Technical Services Quarterly 15, no. 1/2 (1997): 89-107.
Argues that information professionals of all stripes need a broad and fundamental understanding of classification principles, assumptions, and theories as we enter a time of upheaval and proliferation of information and information systems. Demonstrates how theory often leads to, and guides, practice, while practice informs, and even leads to, theory. Discusses various principles and concepts that are critical to understand in light of such rapidly changing information contexts. Provides suggestions for the teaching of principles of classification, both in regards to application and construction. Overall, the author's arguments lead to the conclusion that it is "appropriate to call the study of classification "itself an education" (103). Highly recommended. (mrl 04/25/2006)
Clayden, Judith. "Theory Versus Practice in Cataloging Education: Some Australian Experiences." Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 36, no. 3 (1995): 230-38.
Looks at the perennial dichotomy between theory and practice in cataloging education. Describes the evolution of cataloging education in Australia from 1960 to the present. Looks at three specific courses of study, and reports on Nominal Group Technique sessions with a limited number of educators, practitioners, and students; also reports on individual interviews. Reports on these group's and individual's perceived need for the proper mixture of theoretical knowledge and practical skills, and on what personal attributes are necessary for professional catalogers. (mrl 04/262006)
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. "A Model Curriculum for Cataloging Education: The Library and Information Services Program at the University of Denver." Technical Services Quarterly 15, no. 1/2 (1997): 27-41.
Discusses the perennial dichotomy between theory and practice in cataloging education via a literature review, focus group interviews and case studies. Reports on the design of a new LIS Services Program at the University of Denver, and particularly on the cataloging education component. (mrl 04/22/2006)
Gorman, Michael. "Why Teach Cataloguing and Classification?" Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 1-13.
Somewhere buried in this article is the argument that cataloging is still crucial in this age of Google and full-text access; also outlined is "an ideal library school." The author, though, is completely out-of-touch with the realities of LIS graduate education. He is also guilty of all of the tactics of which he accuses "the enemies of cataloging" of, and more. The primary focus of his ire is William Y. Arms and his article, "Automated Digital Llibraries: How Effectively Can Computers Be Used for the Skilled Tasks of Professional Librarianship?" If you enjoy vitriol and name-calling from a supposed professional then feel free to read this article. Otherwise, do yourself a favor and skip it. The important message that the author tried to address is much more professionally, adequately, and eloquently expressed by others in other venues, or even by Robert P. Holley in this same issue. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/28/2006)
Hill, Janet Swan. "Pitfalls and the Pendulum: Reconsidering Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Preface." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): xix-xxiii.
Offers a short overview of cataloging education and its perceived importance using the metaphor of a pendulum slowly swinging from one extreme to the other. These extremes are cataloger-as-apprentice with employer-as-educator to a comprehensive graduate education that served a lifetime. Provides an overview of each paper within the four major sections of this special volume of CCQ, and sets the context for each section. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/27/2006)
———. "What Else Do You Need to Know? Practical Skills for Catalogers and Managers." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 245-61.
Addresses the skills needed to be a cataloger or technical services supervisor from the perspective of a manager of cataloging operations. Asserts that the primary skill is knowing how to learn, and that continual learning is essential. Purports to discuss library specific skills and non-library specific skills, but the discussion of library specific skills is more a recap of the author's views of how we got to the situation where library schools no longer provide an adequate cataloging or technical services education. Non-library specific skills are broken down into computer skills, communication skills, management and personal skills, and personnel skills. Only computer and communication skills are addressed in the article, while an outline of issues regarding personnel issues is supplied as Appendix A to the article. This article, while of value when it covers computer and communication skills, is not what it purports to be. There is no real discussion of library-specific skills, nor does the supplied appendix cover personnel skills as it is simply a list of possible personnel issues, while there is no discussion whatsoever of management and personal skills. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/22/2006)
———, ed. Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly Monographic "Separates". New York: Haworth Information Press, 2002.
Addresses the shift back to "cataloger-as-apprentice and employer-as-educator" that has happened within education for bibliographic control (xvi). Consists of one introductory article and 24 articles in four sections: "A Matter of Opinion," "The Context," "Education for Specific Purposes," and "Alternatives for Instructional Delivery." Generally of high quality and should serve as a good starting point for anyone interested in the topic. Recommended. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously as Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, Volume 34, Numbers 1/2 and 3 2002. (mrl 05/07/2006)
Hoerman, Heidi Lee. "Why Does Everybody Hate Cataloging?" Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 31-41.
Discusses the various reasons for the negative perceptions, often valid, that others have of cataloging. Analyzes the dangers inherent in continuing in these behaviors, and the damage already done by them. Offers five (mislabelled as four) specific suggestions on overcoming these views: stop whining and do something about the state of cataloging, justify the cost of cataloging, change the terminology we use, get involved with the LIS schools, and recruit capable people to cataloging (39-41). NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/27/2006)
Holley, Robert P. "Cataloging: An Exciting Subject for Exciting Times." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 43-52.
Presents several suggestions for making cataloging education exciting, while simultaneously bridging the perpetual dichotomy between theory and practice in LIS education. Argues for a broad conceptual understanding of cataloging's role in the wider information organization universe, and that this understanding is critical for all information professionals. Claims that the focus of cataloging educations should be the provision of access, and not on technical rule following. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/26/2006)
Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid. "Cataloging and Metadata Education: Asserting a Central Role in Information Organzation." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 203-22.
Looks at the forces impacting cataloging and cataloging education, and then asks and answers ten questions about cataloging education in a digital world. Proposes a sample four-level program for cataloging and metadata education to meet the needs of the 21st century cataloger. While there are challenges to such a program, and they are identified, this suggested program is far more realistic, and detailed, than that suggested by Michael Gorman in "Why Teach Cataloguing and Classification" (also in this volume). Highly recommended. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/25/2006)
Intner, Sheila S. "Persistent Issues in Cataloging Education: Considering the Past and Looking toward the Future." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 15-28.
Analyzes three persistent issues regarding the education of catalogers: (1) practice vs. theory; (2) dividing books from other materials; and (3) the proper setting for teaching cataloging. Discusses the divergence of opinions between educators, students and practitioners on these issues. Weighs the pros and cons of various alternatives to each of these issues, and offers recommendations based on over 20 year of experience teaching cataloging. Concludes that it is most important to understand "that cataloging education be recognized as a process—more specifically, as a process that does not end until a cataloger's career ends." (27). NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 04/28/2006)
Joudrey, Daniel N. "A New Look at US Graduate Courses in Bibliographic Control." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 59-101.
This lengthy, but excellent, article covers a lot of ground in its look at the state of bibliographic control education in 48 US LIS schools. Through a literature review (covering primarily 1990-2001) the author finds 6 recurring themes: contextual information, primarily reflected in changes in cataloging over the years, and the poor image of catalogers and cataloging; theory versus practice; "responsibilities and skills needed by catalogers"; the educator and practitioner relationship; "the universality of cataloging;" and curriculum issues (62). Each area is elucidated in the literature review. Reports on a study conducted in fall 2000 to determine the state of bibliographic control education. Analyzed 48 Web sites, conducted email exchanges and phone interviews as necessary to obtain all required information. Divides the 199 offered courses into 12 areas: organizing information, basic cataloging, descriptive cataloging, subject analysis, classification theory, advanced cataloging, non-print materials cataloging, internet resources cataloging, indexing and abstracting, cataloging technology, music cataloging, and thesaurus construction. Compares results with 3 previous studies: CCQ (1987), Velluci (1997), and Spillane (1998); direct comparisons are problematic due to terminological, sample size and composition differences, which are spelled out. Lists conclusions and recommendations too numerous to list here. A sample include: average number of courses per institution is increasing, number of intro courses are increasing, number of required courses is increasing, specialized courses are increasing, other courses are decreasing (descriptive, advanced and subject cataloging, and cataloging technology), depth of coverage is weakening, employer expectations are too high, while educator's expectations are too low. Highly recommended. See also: Joudrey, Textbooks Used in Bibliographic Control Education Courses, also in this volume. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 05/08/2006)
———. "Textbooks Used in Bibliographic Control Education Courses." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 103-20.
Originally included as Appendix 4 to Joudrey, " A New Look at US Graduate Courses in Bibliographic Control" (also this volume). This paper looks at the textbooks used in bibliographic control courses in the 48 ALA-accredited LIS schools in the US. Data was collected between Sep. 2000 - Feb. 2001. Ninety-two individual titles were used, with AACR2 being used at twice the rate as the 2nd and 3rd most used, no text-various readings and Taylor's "The Organization of Information," respectively. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 05/03/06)
Kirkland, Laura N. "Resources for Catalogers: An Annotated Bibliography." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40, no. 1 (2005): 79-99.
Literature review shows that interest in education for catalogers remains high despite a decrease in cataloging courses being required. Also shows that entry-level catalogers feel unprepared, while employers feel that newer entry-level catalogers are lacking in preparation. Looks at how cataloging and classification tools, an area often overlooked in formal education, can be used by practitioners for self-education and training. Annotated bibliography of these tools is contained as Appendix, and includes sections on General Resources, MARC Resources, Classification Guides, Subject Heading Guides, Resources by Format (Looseleaf, Archives, Rare Books, Graphic Materials, Maps, Music, and Serials), and a short list of Recommended Core Resources. (mrl 05/06/2006)
Letarte, Karen M., Michelle R. Turvey, Dea Borneman, and David L. Adams. "Practitioner Perspectives on Cataloging Education for Entry-Level Academic Librarians." Library Resources & Technical Services 46, no. 1 (2002): 11-22.
Reports on the results of a survey of heads of reference and heads of cataloging in large, academic ARL institutions on the importance of cataloging education for all entry-level academic librarians. Survey is based on the ALCTS Educational Policy Statement, Appendix K Knowledge and Skills (Intellectual Access amd Information Organization). Finds a strong overlap between public and technical service practitioners' opinions in academic libraries, and that a core set of cataloging competencies is demonstrated by this overlap. Clearly useful knowledge for planning one's education in the organization of information. NOTE: The ALCTS Educational Policy Statement has been updated since this article was published and is available at http://www.ala.org/ala/alcts/alctsmanual/conted/cepolicy.htm (mrl 04/23/2006)
Mugridge, Rebecca L., and Kevin A. Furniss. "Education for Authority Control: Whose Responsibility Is It?" Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 233-43.
Reports on the results of a survey of AUTOCAT members, which asked: 1) How did you learn about authority control? 2) What would you do to make authority control easier to learn? 3) What responsibilities should be assumed by a) the library school, b) the employer, c) the individual; and 4) Please comment on what you see as the value of authority control (235-36). Concludes that most librarians learn about authority control on the job, regional workshops are needed for those who cannot afford to go to national conferences, library schools need to offer courses in authority control, employers need to support continuing education in this arena, and that librarians are responsbible for keeping themselves up-to-date in authority control practices. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 05/08/2006)
Olson, Hope A. "Thinking Professionals: Teaching Critical Cataloguing." Technical Services Quarterly 15, no. 1/2 (1997): 51-66.
Argues that LIS students must be taught to think critically regarding cataloging and classification, and not just blind obedience to some rule set. Holistic and critical thinking regarding our catalogs and integrated systems is necessary so that we may evaluate current and proposed workflows and decisions, and so that we may explain what we do and why to non-catalogers. Uses the issue of authority control for subjects as an example of teaching critical thinking in action. Argues that Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog leads to an assumption of a universal language and critically engages with this assumption. Highly recommended. (mrl 04/22/2006)
Taylor, Arlene G. "A Quarter Century of Cataloging Education." In Technical Services Management, 1965-1990: A Quarter Century of Change and a Look to the Future: Festschrift for Kathryn Luther Henderson, edited by Linda C. Smith and Ruth C. Carter, 299-306. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.
Arlene Taylor looks back at her cataloging education from the mid-1960s. Considers changes in cataloging education over the intervening 25 years in course content, number of courses available, professors, teaching methods, and laboratory work. Looks to the future and the myriad changes cataloging will undergo. Concludes that library schools will either need to lengthen their programs or cataloging librarians will have to "reconcile themselves to the necessity of teaching this material to new librarians themselves" (306). I would maintain that LIS programs have, in fact, gotten shorter, and that practitioners have only very reluctantly accepted the necessity of training. This acceptance has been so slow that in effect it must start all over again as resources have been further reduced, instructional technologies have significantly advanced, and our need for training has proliferated along with the formats and materials that need cataloging. (mrl 04/23/2006)
Taylor, Arlene G., and Daniel N. Joudrey. "On Teaching Subject Cataloging." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 223-32.
Discusses the authors' approach to teaching subject cataloging. Major headings are: "Importance for All Librarians to Understand Subject Access," "Theory vs. Practice," "Goals for the Courses," "Making It Concrete," "Separating Subject Analysis from Descriptive Cataloging," "Order in which the Topics are Introduced," "Class Work," "Grading Issues," and "Conclusion." Maybe this isn't a fair analysis, but to me this article just does not seem to contain much. I cannot quite put my finger on why I feel this way; maybe I expect more from Arlene Taylor on this topic. Anyone who reads it may feel free to provide me with any feedback. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 05/08/2006)
Wilder, Stanley J. "Demographic Trends Affecting Professional Technical Services Staffing in ARL Libraries." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 34, no. 1/2 (2002): 53-57.
Based on data from the ARL Annual Salary Survey from 1980 to 2000, shows that professional staffing of technical services staff has declined significantly. The author attributes this to two factors: an extended drop in hiring, and an exceptionally high retirement rate. This retirement rate is speculative though, based on the age of catalogers and predicted retirements, not on actual retirements. Nonetheless, these trends are cause for alarm. NOTE: Co-published simultaneously in Education for Cataloging and the Organization of Information: Pitfalls and the Pendulum. (mrl 05/03/2006)
Wolverton, Robert E., Jr. "Becoming an Authority on Authority Control: An Annotated Bibliography of Resources." Library Resources & Technical Services 50, no. 1 (2006): 31-41.
Gives an overview of the perceptions from library educators and cataloging practioners of the importance of authority control, while highlighting the lack of formal LIS education in authority control. Relies primarily on Mugridge and Furness (2002), "Education for Authority Control: Whose Responsibility is It?" CCQ 34 for the practitioner perspective and on Taylor (2004), "Teaching Authority Control" CCQ 38 for the educator perspective. Provides an annotated bibliography of books, articles, papers, Web sites (noncommercial and commercial), NACO and SACO materials, and electronic discussion lists useful for self-directed education. Looks at future trends in authority control. Very useful for those needing or wanting to pursue enlightenment on authority control. (mrl 04/23/2006)
Zeng, Marcia Lei. Metadata Basics. In, School of Library & Information Science, Kent State University, http://www.slis.kent.edu/~mzeng/metadatabasics/cover.htm. (accessed 13 March 2006, 2006).
Provides a common set of resources for metadata education. Commissioned in response to a recommendation in Hsieh-Yee's Cataloging and Metadata Education: A Proposal for Preparing Cataloging Professionals for the 21st Century, itself a response to Bibliographic Control of Web Resources: A Library of Congress Action Plan, Action Item 5.1. Some content derived from NISO's Understanding Metadata, available at http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf. Primarily useful for the metadata neophyte and as a nice bridge forward. (mrl 05/06/2006)
This paper licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license by Mark R. Lindner