Dawson – Vintage Beer

Read 3-9 Mar

Vintage Beer by Dawson is an excellent introduction to cellaring beer. It is a quick read that will also bear close studying and better note-taking. Production values are high and it is well-edited.

My only gripe, which is both a philosophical one but also an extremely important one practically, is with the author’s stated purpose for cellaring beer:

“So you might ask, why go to the trouble of aging beer? Well, the answer is very simple: aging beer allows time for various flavors not immediately present to develop and meld. With experience and knowledge, your nose and tongue learn to detect different aromatics and taste aspects in a beer and judge whether changes in them would make the beer more enjoyable. This book gives you the background knowledge you need to get started” (6).

My gripe with this is that the goal is restricted to “more enjoyable” when the goal should be “differently enjoyable.” If you start with an already exquisite beer, it may still be “improved” by seeing how “flavors not immediately present [and those already present] develop and meld” over time. The results may not be “more enjoyable” but “differently enjoyable.” I do agree that this book will give you knowledge that will serve you well in learning which beers to cellar, whatever your stated aim is.

The book is full of useful facts, many of which can be found in other places. They have been brought usefully together but with a different focus. These kinds of facts are related to, or at least studied under the rubric of, the spoilage of beer but are here focused on the deliberate aging of beer to impart desired flavor changes.

For example,

“There are also malts that have low lipid (fatty acids found in some malts) levels, which makes them much less susceptible to oxidation and so enables the beer to have a longer cellar life. For these and other reasons, the pricey Maris Otter malt makes extremely rich, long-lasting beers that stand up remarkably well in the cellar” (25).

Or,

“So put yourself in the shoes of a brewer who is designing a beer to age. You would want a hop varietal that has a high ratio of beta-to-alpha acids, which will reduce the trans-2-nonetal potential while retaining the beta acid’s bitterness through the aging process. Luckily, there are hop varietals that meet the need, and, no big surprise, they are used in beers that age well, like English barley wines and Belgian quads. Notable varietals are hops of the noble and English varieties, which sometimes reach close to a 1:1 alpha-to-beta-acid ratio” (30).

Contents:

  • Introduction: The World of Vintage Beer
  • 1 The Aging Beer
  • 2 Determining Vintage Potential
  • 3 The Best Beer Styles for Your Cellar
  • 4 Tasting Classic Cellar Beers
  • 5 Dark and Cool: Selecting Your Cellar
  • 6 How to Manage Your Cellar
  • App. Outstanding Vintage-Beer Bars
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index

Introduction: The World of Vintage Beer

Discusses the author’s entry into aged/aging beer and provides an overview of the rest of the book.

“What I eventually found out is that every beer is highly time dependent. Each beer had a “window” in which it can really shine. Finding that window takes a critical review of a beer’s current qualities and the knowledge of how they (might) change. What you have to keep in mind, though, something it took me a while to figure out, is that everyone’s optimal window is different, and it requires knowing what you are looking for in a beer” (5-6).

1 The Aging Beer

Provides 14 ‘Vintage Beer Rules’ to help one stock “a respectable cellar without too many regrettable choices” (15).

2 Determining Vintage Potential

Looks at the ingredients/components/processes of beer [malt, hops, yeast esters and phenols, alcohol, wood (if present), oxidation, and microbiota (if present)] and provides guidance around each of these topics/issues for choosing beers to cellar.

Under Oxidation we learn that larger volumes oxidize more slowly (45). We also learn that oxidation has four main effects in beer:

  •    “Creates a variety of new compounds with the kilned malt molecules;
  •    Degrades the alpha acids left by the hops;
  •    Causes the esters and phenols produced by the yeast to develop in flavor and aroma;
  •    Forms aldehydes from higher alcohols” (45, reformatted).

3 The Best Beer Styles for Your Cellar
“One of the main reasons for aging beer is to allow new, sometimes subtle flavors to develop and emerge and thus add layers of complexity” (59). Indeed! But not necessarily “better” ones. Different is not wrong.

Styles covered include: English barley wines, American barley wines, Imperial stouts, Belgian quads, Flanders reds/ brown ales, and Gueuzes.

Dawson includes a Vintage Beer Tasting Wheel on p. 61, which has some intriguing differences from the Meilgaard Beer Flavor Wheel. I only wish he had provided more information on where/how it was developed. I’ve read the papers by Meilgaard, et al. on the genesis and evolution of the standard flavor wheel and would be very interested in learning more about the genesis of this one.

4 Tasting Classic Cellar Beers

Eight beers are covered in depth with another three getting shorter mention. The writer and his circle of “experienced vintage beer aficionados” did vertical tastings of these beers and included detailed notes on how appearance, smell,  taste, mouthfeel and overall impression changes over ten years for each of the beers.

5 Dark and Cool: Selecting Your Cellar

Provides a short but reasonably detailed coverage of choosing and outfitting a cellar, focusing on temperature, light exposure, humidity, ullage, cellar configuration, and bottle orientation.

6 How to Manage Your Cellar

This chapter gives ideas on keeping track of what you have and what you have consumed. Paper vs. spreadsheet vs. cellar apps are considered with a side discussion of how to date a bottle of beer.

Appendix. Outstanding Vintage-Beer Bars

Discusses 10 vintage beer bars with a mention of 10 more.

Concluding notes:

All-in-all, I found this an excellent little book about a topic near and dear to the better half’s and my heart(s). The author has provided a wealth of knowledge in a condensed but accessible form, which will bear closer study when I revisit it soon. But first, I will have to pry it from my wife’s hands once she’s done reading it.

Highly recommended to anyone considering the intentional aging of beer.

Deschutes Mirror Mirror 2014 release

Today is release day for Deschutes much-anticipated Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barrel-aged barley wine. It has been 5 years since it was last released. This past Dec 20th I had some of the 2009 Mirror Mirror at a Solstice Barley Wine Night party we had at our place and it was quite tasty so I was definitely looking forward to this release.

Mirror Mirror 2014 Release barley wine at Deschutes Brewery barrel works

Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barley wine at Deschutes Brewery barrel works

The same friend who brought the 2009 Mirror Mirror to our barley wine party, the ever personable Jon Abernathy, invited me as his +1 to an invitation-only media event held yesterday at Deschutes barrel works, celebrating the release of the Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve. We got to chat with founder Gary Fish and barrel master and brewer Ryan [sorry, failed to catch his last name].

Deschutes founder, Gary Fish, and barrel master/brewer Ryan, talking to us about the Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barley wine

Deschutes founder, Gary Fish, and barrel master/brewer Ryan, talking to us about the Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barley wine

They talked about Mirror Mirror, the Reserve Series, the new Pub Reserve Series, the barrel works, upcoming plans for beers, and answered questions while we sampled the new 2014 Mirror Mirror. Next we tried some of the first Pub Reserve Series beer Big Red. And finally we got to try some future Not the Stoic right out of the rye barrel it is aging in. It was a grand time, the beers were all world class, and I learned a lot. Thanks, Deschutes and Jon!

Deschutes Brewery barrel works, cold side

Deschutes Brewery barrel works, cold side

Deschutes Brewery barrel works, warm side for sours and those beauties needing warmer temps of 70 degrees

Deschutes Brewery barrel works, warm side for sours and those beauties needing warmer temps of 70 degrees

Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve Barley Wine was the first of the Deschutes Reserve Series and was previously released in 2005 & 2009. It was “born of a double batch of Mirror Pond Pale Ale, [and] is an inspired barley wine ale layered with intriguing nuances. Explore the latest incarnation and enjoy its delicious complexity in every sip.” It is 11/2% ABV and has 53 IBUs. It is brewed with English malts and Cascade and Millennium hops. Fifty percent was aged for 10 months in oak barrels that once held Oregon Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, and Malbec wines. [All info from the one-sheet they provided.]

Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barley wine

Mirror Mirror 2014 Reserve barley wine

I hope to get about 5-6 bottles of this and sit on them for 6-months, 1 year, 2 years through to 4-5 years. I expect quite delicious things to develop. I suggest you get to one of the pubs and try this fresh on draft and then put aside a bottle or two for at least 6 months. Keep in mind that even Deschutes recommends waiting a year as the bottles have a “Best After” 24 February 2015 date on them. I’m willing to “sacrifice” a bottle at 6-months to see how it is developing but my main interest in this vintage is in the 1 to 5-year-old range.

The Pub Reserve Series was quietly released at the end of last year. These bottles are only available at both of the pubs and the breweries’ tasting room. “It’s no secret that our brewers love to experiment in the pub brewhouses, and this new series celebrates that passion with some never-seen-before, single-batch brews. First up is Big Red, a double Cinder Cone Red, aged in Cabernet and Syrah barrels. The next pub Reserve beer will be Planète Rouge, a blended sour red ale – releasing March 24, 2014.” [All info from the one-sheet they provided.]

The Big Red, an Imperial Red Ale, is shaping up quite nicely already. We had a sample at the Deschutes Pub on 31 December when it was released and picked up a bottle for some light aging. It has a “best by” 1 Dec 2014 date and based on how it has already matured I think I’ll give it another 3-4 months. If you are interested in this you had best grab it soon at either of Deschutes pubs in Bend or Portland or at the tasting room at the brewery.

After they discussed the Pub Reserve Series, I asked Gary and Ryan if the Portland Pub beers would be available at the tasting room. They clarified that these beers are brewed in both pubs, in this case barrel-aged, and then shipped to the brewery where they are blended and then bottled for sale. So they truly are a collaboration between the two pub brewers. I know I need to learn more about the Portland pub brewer but we adore Veronica Vega and her Bend pub beers!

The Not the Stoic will be a barrel-aged, Belgian-style quad, due in April if I remember correctly. It is aging in several different barrels and we got ours straight out of a rye barrel. I hope once it’s blended some of those rye notes remain, along with whatever other intriguing notes they get from the other barrels.

Not the Stoic straight out of the rye barrel

Not the Stoic straight out of the rye barrel

Again, thanks so much Deschutes Brewery and Jon for including me.

Oh yeah. We each got to bring a bottle home.

And as final photo teasers here are some true beauties to salivate over in your dreams while we wait for some future release:

The Abyss Imperial Stout. But is this 2014 or 2015?

The Abyss Imperial Stout. But is this 2014 or 2015?

 

Pub Imperial Bitter sitting in a spanish sherry cask. OMG! Please let me find this at the Bend pub whenever it is released.

Pub Imperial Bitter sitting in a spanish sherry cask. OMG! Please let me find this at the Bend pub whenever it is released.

 

 

Tap Into History: Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Launch Party

Oregon beer fans of all stripes will want to be at this event if they possibly can: The Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives (OHBA) is having their formal launch party titled Tap Into History at McMenamin’s Mission Theater (Portland), 28 March starting at 7 pm. This event is free and educational in the best possible way!

Beer folks in Portland—and further afield—really ought to consider being there if they can. Check out the line-up. We will definitely be there if the weather gods are cooperative. We already have a room reserved for the night at McMenamin’s Crystal Ballroom in a dash-up-and-back that Friday-Saturday. We are super-excited for this. As I mentioned back in December I have been entirely remiss from writing about OHBA here.  I hope to rectify that before (and after) this event but we are in the process of closing on a house in the next few weeks (and 1-2 weeks before this event) so no promises.

See below for links for more info but the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives is a unit of OSU Libraries & Press’ Special Collections & Archives Research Center (SCARC). It is “the first archive in the United States dedicated to preserving and telling the intertwined story of hops and beer” and its mission is “to preserve the story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon” (from the OHBA page). Their 2-page pdf brochure (pdf) can be be found here.

Here is the event flyer [full-size pdf, 1 p.]: ohba-launch-event-022814-2

Flyer for the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Tap Into History Launch Party on 28 March 2014.

Flyer for the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Tap Into History Launch Party on 28 March 2014.

Event on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/771930049501856/

Here is the press release:

TAP INTO HISTORY WITH THE OREGON HOPS & BREWING ARCHIVES!

  • MISSION THEATER 1624 NW GLISAN ST., PORTLAND
  • DOORS OPEN AT 6:30 PM, PROGRAM AT 7:00PM, FILM SCREENINGS AT 8:30PM.
  • ALL WELCOME – PROGRAM FREE MARCH 28TH 2014

Contact Tiah Edmunson-Morton at tiah.edmunson-morton@oregonstate.edu or 541.737.7387 for more information.

Find out more about OHBA at

On March 28th we’re hosting “Tap into History,” an event at the Mission Theater in Portland to introduce OHBA to our diverse audience. We’ll bring together a panel for a public talk about brewing history in Oregon. Tiah Edmunson-Morton, OHBA archivist, will talk about the project and its impact. Peter Kopp, agricultural historian, will talk about his use of archival materials and the relevance for researchers. John Foyston, an Oregonian writer since 1987, will talk about his work documenting the Oregon beer scene. Irene Firmat, CEO and Co-Founder of Full Sail Brewing Company, will talk about her work as a female brewing pioneer. Daniel Sharp, PhD student in the OSU College of Agriculture’s Fermentation Science program, will talk about his research and the OSU program. The event concludes with screenings from Hopstories, a collection of short videos showcasing breweries in Oregon, and OPB’s Beervana, a documentary about the history of beer and the rise of craft brewing in Oregon.

Production of hops and beer are part of Oregon’s identity, engaging both the general public and the scholarly community with our rich history of researching and producing world-class hops and beer. From scholars to people with an interest in local and creative products, students to alumni, hops farmers to brewers, the opportunities for the community engagement and scholarly use are vast. Recognizing the need to document the intertwined story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon, the Special Collections & Archives Research Center at Oregon State University Libraries & Press established the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives (OHBA) in 2013 to collect and provide access to records related to Oregon’s hops and craft brewing industries. As the first archive in the United States dedicated to hops and beer, OHBA will bring together a wealth of materials that will enable people to study and appreciate these movements.

“At its core, OHBA is a community archiving project” so come to this event to learn how you can help record and make use of the history of hops production and brewing in Oregon.

Seriously, beer/brewing/hops/history fans, be there! I hope to see you.

The Abyss vertical tasting

On the 11th of January of this year the wife and I were invited along with about 16 other people to Jon & Sherri Abernathy’s home for one of the most epic tastings ever: Deschutes The Abyss Imperial Stout full vertical tasting, 2006 – 2013.

Epic is the correct word. Certainly there are similar tastings of equally exquisite beers, but bring in all 8 years beginning with the first vintage (2006) and they become very rare, and often epic, events.

The first order of business is a big thanks to Jon & Sherri for collecting, saving, hoarding, storing and, finally, sharing all of those bottles of The Abyss. Bless you Jon for starting discussions of carrying it forward in 8 or more year flights into the future (next year 2007-2014 unless some saintly benefactor shows up with some 2006).

Jon's menu for The Abyss 2006-2013 Vertical Tasting

Jon’s menu for The Abyss 2006-2013 Vertical Tasting

The guests were Jon’s work buddies, local beer geeks and local beer industry folks including Gina and Jason, great people and Deschutes’ social media team. There is of course some overlap between various groups. There were three folks who were not having beer.

We drank the vintages sequentially starting at the beginning with 2006 and ending with 2013, although a few people had already dropped off or were about to by the time we got to 2013. ;)

Deschutes The Abyss 2006 - its 1st vintage

Deschutes The Abyss 2006 – its 1st vintage

We had shared a bottle of 2006 The Abyss back in summer with some of these same folks at the 2013 End of Summer Beer Extravaganza. Jon’s bottle was a bit better aged than that one, which wasn’t bad in the first place. He only had two 22 oz bottles of 2006 so we were getting about 2 oz each. It was an exquisite beer.

I knew trying to keep notes on the nuances between vintages was beyond ridiculous and I wanted to focus on the beer. I was planning on checking them all in on Untapped but only made a few notes on the first few. 2007 was going to be the only vintage I had not yet tasted* and I wanted a few notes on it. Here’s what I said:

  • 2006: A: heavenly. Dry must, cedar. Choc, tobacco, vanilla. Amazing! [notebook and Untappd]
  • 2007: A: tar, tobacco. OMG Beergasm! Slightly more tobacco, slightly spicier in mid-finish [notebook only]
  • 2008: little sweeter; smoother [notebook only]
  • 2009: slight Brett “infection” After that I just checked them in with a five-star rating and got back to enjoying them.
Deschutes The Abyss 2007

Deschutes The Abyss 2007

Every single one of the vintages was exquisite despite its differences from its siblings. Perhaps it is also due to those differences. Drinking 2 pints of The Abyss is not something one undertakes lightly. Experiencing all of those one after the other over a few hours was priceless.

In 2009 Deschutes had a problem with some of their batches getting infected with Brettanomyces. I have had Mirror Mirror and now The Abyss from 2009 (all previous 2009 The Abyss i have had was not infected.) that were both “infected” and let me tell you that they were still exquisite beers—despite and because. For many fans of Mirror Mirror and The Abyss the 2009 infected bottles are their favorites.

After the 2013 there were still some bottles of assorted vintages that weren’t empty. I had another ~1.5 oz of 2006 and then the same of 2010. In all, I had had ~2 pints of The Abyss.

My favorites so far are 2006, 2007 and 2010. I believe 2009 has amazing potential and 2011 isn’t far behind it. 2012 and 2013 are, of course, tasty but are still young.

We have a bottle each of 2007 and 2008, which I got at the Deschutes Bend Pub on release day this year. That bottle of 2007 is the priciest beer per oz. that I have bought so far. We also have 2 bottles of 2012 and 12 of this past year’s vintage. Sadly, it will be several years before we can host a vertical of The Abyss ourselves.

Thanks so very much to Jon and Sherri for hosting this wonderful tasting and for sharing all of this The Abyss with us.

Orange bottle cap from Deschutes The Abyss 2006 [see Jon's post linked below for more info]

Orange bottle cap from Deschutes The Abyss 2006 [see Jon's post linked below for more info]

Here is Jon’s recap of the evening at his own blog: Abyss tasting Some of his tweets:

 

Deschutes Brewery tweets:

 

* We moved to Bend in time for the 2012 release of The Abyss and had a flight of 2008-12 at the pub on release day, and this past year we had 2009-13, again at the pub on release day.

In which I admit my slackardly tendencies once again run amok …

I have been particularly remiss for a while now about a couple of posts that need doing. And, now, of course, what with the holidays and such, they are holding up even more more-recent posts that need writing.

OSU Fermentation Sciences Pilot Brewery visit

Back in July, I got a personal tour of the Oregon State University Fermentation Sciences Pilot Brewery by its faculty manager, Jeff Clawson. It was a great visit and I have been meaning to post about it since then. I hope to do so soon.

Oregon Hops and Brewing Archive

We were in Corvallis again, on 23 August, for my lovely wife to attend a Valley Library in-service day, where she gave a small presentation on tasting beer. A couple of the Special Collections & Archives Research Center (SCARC) archivists chatted with her during lunch and then attended her talk. Was she married to the Bend Beer Librarian and we’re starting up the Oregon Hops and Brewing Archive (OHBA) at SCARC was the gist of some of the conversation.

An email introduction later and we were making potential plans for us to help OHBA in whatever way we could: point person in Bend, general consumer view, whatever. On October 24th we dashed over to Corvallis (and back) so that I could meet with the lead archivist for OHBA, Tiah Edmunson-Morton, and it just happened to be Taste of the Chives 2013 so we got to attend a little open house beer food event, too. After the lunch event in the library, Tiah, Sara and I went to a nearby coffee shop and talked for a couple hours. Since then we have been in contact via email.

This I have also failed to even mention here. I have tried to give OHBA a little love on Twitter but I am still overly remiss in not bringing this great new Oregon hops and brewing resource and its enthusiastic and dedicated archivist to your attention.

Events, of late

We have also attended several events of varying size and significance lately.

Last Saturday, the 14th, was the 1st Annual Winter Beer Fest, sponsored by Growler Guys, and hosted at GoodLife.

That evening, our friend Miles, held his first event as Exploring Beer, a barrel-aged beer tasting with 10 selections of barrel-aged beers across different styles. This was an excellent first event. It was well attended and I believe everyone had a good time. I helped a little with the education portion and with serving the beer.

Tonight we are hosting a Solstice Barley Wine Night at our place with about 10 folks, which will be crowded accommodations here. We will be sharing 13 or more barley wines, which range from all 3 of the Class of ’88s from Deschutes, Rogue and North Coast, a 2009 Deschutes Mirror Mirror to a McAuslan St. Ambroise Vintage 20th Anniversary (2009) and an AleSmith Old Numbskull, along with several others.

Reviews

There are a couple of great sites, like Good Beer Hunting, that I have been wanting to ensure you know about, also. And, of course, I am behind on book reviews.

Well, I guess I cannot complain about not having anything to write about going into the new year.

Some Things Read, Beer ed.

This post is my entry for Let’s Go Long in November or #beerylongreads hosted by Boak and Bailey’s Beer Blog. The goal is to go for 2000+ words on some topic related to beer. I do have a long post / article / something that I am working on but I am fairly confident that my research will not be done by 30 November so I am going to pull out a variation on an old trick from my original non-beer blog.

I used to have a weekly post called “Some things read this week.” Drop that in the search box at habitually probing generalist or simply click this link and you’ll find those posts. Of course, those were almost entirely library and information science related so perhaps you really don’t need or want to.

I have been collecting articles of interest on the world of beer for a while now. Some I have read; many I have not. Some are single finds that I found in my intermittent searches of article databases, some have been sent to me, and some are citations that I tracked down from books and articles read. I may also include book chapters where I did not read an entire book but only scanned a chapter or two. [Above written 12 Nov]

I am going to try a rough, but certainly inadequate, categorization with groupings of Health, Taste, Brewing, Archaeology and Assorted.

Health

§ Is Beer-Drinking Injurious? Science, Vol. 9, No. 206 (Jan. 14, 1887), pp. 24-25. Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1761606

I am going to lead off with one I wrote about back in March since it is simply so wonderful. I have yet to read the full paper that the short article in Science is based on but I still hope to some day. The short Science piece, all of which is reproduced on my blog at that link, is quite the doozy.

§ Casey, Troy R, and Charles W Bamforth. 2010. “Silicon in Beer and Brewing.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90 (5) (April 15): 784–788. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3884. Read 10 November 2013. Found while helping a student with a chemistry assignment. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.3884/full

“The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer” (abstract). There is no RDA for silicon but the “dietary intake of silicon in the USA is about 20-50 mg day” (784). Among some of the uses of silicon in humans is to promote increased bone mineral density, increase type I collagen synthesis, and protect from the toxic effects of aluminum ( 784; WebMD Silicon).

They tested 100 commercial examples, many of which came from “smaller independent breweries” (785). Average silicon was 29.4 ppm, which was much higher than the averages found in two previous studies (19.2 ppm / 18.7 ppm) which they attributed to those craft breweries use of more malt (785, 784). Pale malts have the highest concentration of silicon, the majority of which resides in the husk (786). Hops can have as much a four times the silicon as barley but so little is used it does not have a big effect on overall silicon levels in beer (786). As you may guess, craft beer IPAs contained the most silicon due to their large amount of paler malts and the large amount of hops (785). There was also a brewing component to this study which I will let you look into on your own. They concluded that “Beer is a substantial source of silicon in the diet” (788). Drink beer—moderately, of course—for strong bones and other health-related benefits.

§ Wright, C. A., C. M. Bruhn, H. Heymann, and Charles W Bamforth. 2008. “Beer Consumers’ Perceptions of the Health Aspects of Alcoholic Beverages.” Journal of Food Science 73 (1): H12–H17. OSU – Wiley-Blackwell. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00574.x. Read 19 April 2013/Re-read 26 November 2013.

This article discusses an examination of the perceptions consumers have of the health benefits and nutritional value of the moderate consumption of alcohol. Focus groups were used to identify themes which “led directly to the style and content of the consumer survey” (H13). The survey was “conducted at large commercial breweries at 3 locations: northern California (West Coast), eastern Missouri (Midwest), and southern New Hampshire (East Coast)” (H13). The study measured “consumers’ perceptions of the healthfulness of alcoholic beverages based on their color or appearance; consumers’ drivers of choice for alcoholic beverages; consumers’ perceptions of the content of alcoholic beverages; consumers’ sources of nutritional and health information; the credibility of these sources of nutritional and health information; consumers’ beliefs about alcohol’s role in a healthy lifestyle; and the potential impact of nutritional and health information on consumers’ actions” (H12).

They rankings for perception of healthfulness of 6 alcoholic beverages was as follows (perceived healthiest to least so): Red wines, whites wines, “light” beers, light colored beers, dark colored beers, and regular beers (H13-14). This was the same for males and females. The 14 factors in choosing an alcoholic beverage varies significantly between males and females and also by age (age groups were 21 to 30, and 30+), although taste was the #1 driver (H14). The most frequent source of health and nutritional information was doctors and magazines, with 11 other sources trailing; though, this varied by location, age and gender (H14-15). “People’s knowledge of the content of alcoholic beverages was limited” (H15). That is an understatement. This varied mostly by age, with the 21-30s being particularly confused about what is in wine, beer, tequila or vodka. Although if you look at the %s in the charts for each the 30+s have no legs to stand on either (H15-16). On a more positive note, “[t]he majority of volunteers, 75%, believed that the moderate consumption of alcohol can be beneficial to your health. Fewer than 3% … believed that this statement [was] false and 22% were not sure how they felt about the statement” (H16). There is a lot more data here and it is interesting to note much of it. They advocate for nutritional labeling on alcoholic beverages so that consumers can make more informed choices.

Taste

§ Langstaff, Susan A., and M. J. Lewis. 1993. “The Mouthfeel of Beer – A Review.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 99 (February): 31–37. Read 13-15 November 2013. Cited in Bamforth, ed., Brewing: new technologies, ch. 20, “Brewing control systems: sensory evaluation” by W. J. Simpson, p. 434.

This is basically a literature review of “the development of terminology and methods to describe [mouthfeel] and studies of the physical and chemical properties which may contribute to it” (abstract). It is organized into three sections: 1. Development of Beer Mouthfeel Terminology, 2. Physical and Chemical Parameters Which May Contribute to Beer Mouthfeel, and 3. Mouthfeel Studies Using Beverages and Beer. Subsections include History and Beer Flavor Wheel in the first section; and Foam Head, Carbon Dioxide, “Protein” (Polypeptides), Polyphenols, Chloride, Dextrins, β-Glucan, Viscosity, Alcohol, Glycerol, and Caveat in the second. The third section has no subsections.

It is a fairly short article that sadly doesn’t do much other than critique previous studies. I wish it had provided a few more definitive comments about mouthfeel or, at a minimum, had proposed further studies to further elucidate the impact of the physical and chemical properties mentioned and how they actually do or do not impact mouthfeel. According to Simpson, this is the paper that led to the modification of the Beer Flavor Wheel to include a separate mouthfeel section.

§ Gruber, Mary Anne. 2001. “The Flavor Contributions of Kilned and Roasted Products to Finished Beer Styles.” Technical Quarterly 38 (4): 227–233. http://www.fantastic-flavour.com/files-downloads/beer_flavour_wheel.pdf. Cited by Thomas, “Beer How It’s Made – The Basics of Brewing” in Liquid Bread, p. 38 Read 14 November 2013; re-read 18 November 2013.

Based on a poster presented at the MBAA Guadalajara Convention, 2001. A short, 6-page-plus article with lots of pictures and illustrations which reviews “the wide spectrum of specialty malts available and the contribution of specialty malt flavors to finely crafted specialty beers” (abstract). The introduction covers flavor and the Beer Flavor Wheel. “The Specialty Malting Process” covers exactly what it says. “Flavor Contribution (1)” covers kilned, high temp kilned and wheat malt. “Flavor Contribution (2)” covers roasted malts. “Flavor Contribution (3)” covers kilned and roasted malts. “Flavor Contribution (4)” covers roasted barley. The summary wraps things up. All-in-all, this short article contains a fair bit of useful knowledge if you aren’t already well-versed in specialty malts.

Brewing

§ Sancho, Daniel, Carlos A. Blanco, Isabel Caballero, and Ana Pascual. 2011. “Free Iron in Pale, Dark and Alcohol-free Commercial Lager Beers.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91 (6) (April 1): 1142–1147. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4298. Read 13 November 2013. Found while helping a student with a chemistry assignment.

This study compared the amount of free iron in pale, dark and alcohol-free beers in order to find a “highly sensitive, selective, rapid, reliable and inexpensive method” to measure free iron in beer (abstract). They looked at 40 lager beers (28 pale, 6 dark, 6 alcohol-free) and found the highest levels in dark beers, followed by pale, with the lowest levels in alcohol-free beers (average: 121 ppb dark, 92 ppb pale, 63 ppb alcohol-free) (1143, 1144-45). They then go on to speculate as to why the numbers are as the found them whether due to production processes or ingredients used. As they state, “It is very useful to know the free iron content in beer since it plays an important role as a catalyst in the oxidation of organic compounds that are responsible for the stability and flavour in beers” (1144). I would be particularly interested in seeing the method developed in this study used to measure the free iron in various ales, especially big NW IPAs with all of their hops and in big stouts and Imperial stouts.

§ Coghe, Stefan, Hélène D’Hollander, Hubert Verachtert, and Freddy R. Delvaux. 2005. “Impact of Dark Specialty Malts on Extract Composition and Wort Fermentation.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 111 (1) (January 1): 51–60. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.2005.tb00648.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2005.tb00648.x. Read 21 November 2013. Cited by Casey & Bamforth 2010, “Silicon in beer and brewing,” (see above).

An interesting article that looks at “the influence of dark specialty malts on wort fermentation. More specifically, the availability of yeast nutrients, the course of the fermentation and the formation of flavour-active compounds were investigated” (59). As for reduced attenuation in dark worts, it was found that lower levels of fermentable carbohydrates and reduced amino acids were the prime reason, although Maillard compounds also affect fermentation (59). Flavor-active yeast metabolites are also affected by dark malts (59). The authors claim that brewers should not worry about these results as the levels of dark malts used are way beyond what are used in practice and thus the findings are only of scientific relevance. “Thus, in normal brewing practice, no drastically reduced fermentation rates and ester profiles should be expected” (59). They suggest some further research that would help explicate some of their findings to a greater degree.

Archaeology

§ Samuel, Delwen. 1996. “Archaeology of Ancient Egyptian Beer.” Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 54 (1): 3–12. Single Journals. doi:10.1094/ASBCJ-54-0003. Read 22 November 2013. Cited in “Beer in Prehistoric Europe” by Hans-Peter Stika, in Liquid Bread, p. 57. Google Scholar.

A fascinating article from 1996 which I hoped had been followed up on but I have been unable so far to find anything further from the “ancient Egyptian beer project” as “sponsored by Scottish and Newcastle Breweries plc and carried out under the aegis of the Egypt Exploration Society” (4). There are a lot of articles which cite this one and are, in effect, followups but those are quite specific to a narrow scientific technique of analysis and not of the more general “this is how our model has evolved based on further studies.” Sections consist of the Abstract, introduction, Archaeological Approaches to Ancient Egyptian Brewing, Cereals Used for Brewing, The Search for Brewing Processes, The Case for Malting, Malting Procedures, Ancient Egyptian Brewing: Single System or Two-Part Process?, Future Research, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited. In each case, they present evidence ranging from scanning electron microscopy to linguistics, and address the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques and the interpretations derived therefrom.

Assorted

§ DeLyser, D. Y., and W. J. Kasper. 1994. “Hopped Beer: The Case for Cultivation.” Economic Botany 48 (2) (April 1): 166–170. doi:10.2307/4255609. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4255609. Read 27 November 2013. Cited in Bamforth (ed.) Brewing: New technologies, ch. 5 The breeding of hop, p. 102 and 103.

Looks at the available documentary evidence in an attempt “to distill from available evidence a chronology of the early use of hops in beer, its domestication, and worldwide dispersion” (166). From it we learn of some of the other uses for hops, including as a salad vegetable, to cultivate wild yeast, as household ornamental plants, woven as linen, as a hair rinse for brunettes, as a yellow dye, as bedding and insulation and as packing material, among others (167).

The first documentary evidence of hop usage in beer is the Statutae Abbattiae Corbej (822 A.D.) and not St. Hildegard’s usually ascribed Physica Sacra, of ca. 1150 A.D. (168). “The first actual record of cultivated hops comes from documents in the annals of the Abbey of Freisingen in Bavaria (859 to 875 A.D. and onwards) which mentions orchards with hop gardens” (169). Based on this and other evidence they infer that hop use in beer was followed by cultivation, which was driven by demand, and that it was the use in beer which led to cultivation and not something else.

§ Baxter, Alan G. 2001. “Louis Pasteur’s Beer of Revenge.” Nature Reviews Immunology 1 (3) (December): 229–232. Nature Journals Online. doi:10.1038/35105083. http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.proxy.library.oregonstate.edu/nri/journal/v1/n3/abs/nri1201-229a.html. Read 15 November 2013. Cited in “Beer and Beer Culture in Germany” by Franz Meussdoerffer, in Liquid Bread, p. 68.

Short article that informs us about Pasteur and his hatred for Germany due to the Franco-Prussian War. We learn about some of his microbiological work, along with learning about a few of his supporters and detractors, and Pasteur’s “beer of revenge.” The author seems to imply in closing that Pasteur was successful:

“His ‘beer of revenge’ was so successful that to this day, very little German beer is exported, even though some are widely regarded as being among the best in the world. The irony is that the German breweries rendered idle by Pasteur’s strategy were eventually adapted to manufacture acetone for cordite production. So, Pasteur’s vengeance indirectly helped to equip Germany for their attack on France in the First World War” (232).

Whut?! What German beer factories were rendered idle? What strategy? Being a dick to Germans and refusing to allow a translation of his Studies on Fermentation into German? I am pretty certain that it had probably been translated a couple of times into German, whether or not it had been commercially. Did the writer make this ridiculous claim so that he could use the word “ironic”? It also seems to me that those claims about factories need a citation. I don’t doubt that some breweries were converted to cordite production but that’s not the kind of claim you can just throw out without support in an immunology journal.

Germany may not be the biggest exporter of beer but let us compare a few statistics on French and German beer that are fairly contemporaneous with when the author’s claim was made (from Bamforth, Charles W. 2009. Beer: Tap into the Art and Science of Brewing. 3rd ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.):

From Table 1.2 Worldwide Brewing and Beer Statistics (2004)

From Table 1.2 Worldwide Brewing and Beer Statistics (2004)

There are only two countries in this chart even close to Germany’s export numbers: Mexico (14.5) and Netherlands (13.0). That made Germany the #2 exporter of beer worldwide in 2004. How the hell was Pasteur’s ‘beer of revenge’ successful?

From Table 1.3 Growth or Decline in Beer Volume (Million hl) Since 1970

From Table 1.3 Growth or Decline in Beer Volume (Million hl) Since 1970

Interesting and informative article. I simply do not know what to say about its conclusion.

Here are some articles that I did not get to this time. Perhaps in another edition of #beerylongreads or simply as an infrequent Some Things Read This Week. Time will tell.

Health

  • “Fiber and putative prebiotics in beer” – Bamforth & Gambill
  • “Beer and wine consumers’ perceptions of the nutritional value of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages” – Wright, et al.
  • “Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? – Bendsen, et al.

Taste

  • “Reference Standards for Beer Flavor Terminology” – Meilgaard, et al.
  • “Beer Flavor Terminology” – Meilgaard, et al.
  • “Investigating consumers’ representations of beers through a free association task: A comparison between packaging and blind conditions” – Sester, et al.
  • “Expertise and memory for beers and olfactory compounds” – Valentin, et al. “Do trained assessors generalize their knowledge to new stimuli?” – Chollet, et al.
  • “Impact of Training on Beer Flavor Perception and Description: Are Trained and Untrained Subjects Really Different?” – Chollet & Valentin
  • “Attempts to Train Novices for Beer Flavor Discrimination: A Matter of Taste.” – Peron & Allen
  • “Sort and beer: Everything you wanted to know about the sorting task but did not dare to ask” – Chollet, et al.
  • “What is the validity of the sorting task for describing beers? A study using trained and untrained assessors” – Lelièvre, et al.

Brewing

  • “The history of beer additives in Europe — A review” – Behre
  • “Studies on the Effect of Mechanical Agitation on the Performance of Brewing Fermentations: Fermentation Rate, Yeast Physiology, and Development of Flavor Compounds” – Boswell, et al.

Archaeology

  • “Brewing an Ancient Beer” – Katz and Maytag

Assorted

  • “Drinking Beer in a Blissful Mood” – Jennings, et al.
  • ““Beer, Glorious Beer”: Gender Politics and Australian Popular Culture.” – Kirkby
  • “Women & Craft Beer: Are You Making the Connection?” – Johnson “Beer Color Using Tristimulus Analysis” – Cornell

And others.

Well, this concludes my post. This should be somewhere above 3100 words so I am calling it accomplished.

McMenamins Kris Kringle 2013

On Friday I stopped by McMenamins Old St. Francis School to see brewer Mike “Curly” White who gave me a growler of the just-released-that-day 2013 Kris Kringle Traditional Yuletide Ale brewed by him along with two bombers of the Edgefield version. By the way: The flyer accompanying this years release lists slightly different hops that the one at the link.

Description: Just in time for the holidays, November 15th marks the release of this year’s McMenamins Traditional Yuletide Ale, Kris Kringle. The busy-as-elves McMenamins brewers have created another wonderful gift for your taste buds this holiday season. The 2013 version of Kris Kringle is a hearty and robust ale with a big and bold malt complexity as well as an intense and flavorful hop profile. This “winter warmer” highlights the rich, toasty, aromatic and chocolaty malt flavors as its very sturdy foundation. Generous amounts of four different hop varieties were added in five different additions, which delivers a magnificent and massive hop assault. There’s still some ginger and cinnamon added into the batch but the spices are a little more subdued than in years’ past. McMenamins brewers hope you enjoy this years’ version of our old Holiday favorite, Kris Kringle. Happy Holidays and a Wonderful New Year!

Ingredients: 

Malts: GWM Pale Ale Malt, GWM Munich Malt, GWM Wheat Malt, GWM 15L Crystal Malt, GWM 120L Crystal Malt, Baird’s Chocolate Malt.

Hops: Nugget (Bittering & Flavor), Chinook (Flavor), Cascade (Flavor & Aroma), Santiam (Flavor & Aroma)

Buzz Words: Robust, Hoppy, Festive

Alcohol: 6.84% • IBU: 90 • SRM: 15 

I took the growler and a bomber over to Paul and Sandi’s house that night, where we re-watched the 1st Thor movie since we were going to see the Thor: The Dark World on Saturday. I poured the wife a glass from the growler before I headed over since she wasn’t joining us for the movie.

McMenamins Kris Kringle Traditional Yuletide Ale 2013

McMenamins Kris Kringle Traditional Yuletide Ale 2013

Let me say up front that I enjoyed both versions, as did everyone else who tasted them.

Kris Kringle 2013 Old St. Francis School version:
A: medium level of fruity hops and very light pine.
C: Dark orange-brown.
Malty with a slightly sweet finish, while also having a slight hop bitterness in the finish. Was kind of wondering where all the claimed bitterness was hiding. I’m not complaining because I’m not a hophead. I found myself really enjoying this as a highly drinkable beer. It certainly is no session beer based on ABV but it was going down easily like one.

Kris Kringle 2013 Edgefield production brewery version:
A: far more aroma, especially more pronounced hops.
C: same color but definitely clearer, more heavily filtered.
Hoppier tasting and far more bitter. More attenuated; still malty but not sweet; dry finish. A very different beer, although the family resemblance was definitely there. Also found this one going down quite easily.

I enjoyed both and suggest you get to your local McMenamins and pick some up along with a bottle or two of the Edgefield production version and do your own head-to-head taste off. I’d be interested in hearing what you discover. Thanks, McMenamins!

Disclaimer: Beer provided to me free of charge by McMenamins.

The Abyss 2013 Release

Thursday was release day for The Abyss 2013—Deschutes’ imperial stout—at both the Bend and Portland pubs. That meant one thing. I was there. Just like I was there last year. Just like I hope to be there for years into the future.

A few others and I were there when they opened the Bend pub doors at 11. I settled in at a table in the bar area as my friend Miles was going to be joining me in a bit for lunch. I ordered my taster flight which came with 5 oz pours of 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2013 on nitro along with one of Deschutes’ heavenly chocolate truffles.

Tasters of The Abyss Imperial Stout on Release Day. 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2013 ntiro

Tasters of The Abyss Imperial Stout on Release Day. 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2013 ntiro

[Please, please, please Deschutes—if you are listening—put the truffles back on the every day menu!]

Slowly over the next two hours I sampled my way through those small glasses of heaven. Miles wasn’t able to finish all of his before having to head back to work so I inherited varying amounts. He did finish the 2010 and the 2013 non-nitro though.

Since the better half had to work she was unable to visit until very late afternoon. I met her and then we headed to the pub. She had the flight and I ordered a snifter of the 2009. Pub brewer Veronica Vega came by at some point with a tray of bottled 2009 samples and we snagged one. By the time we had to leave for the Paul Barrere and Fred Tackett show at the Tower the pub was really hopping.

Snifter of The Abyss Imperial Stout 2009

Snifter of The Abyss Imperial Stout 2009

We had seen several friends and were able to leave some of all vintages for our friend Jon to taste.

On my first visit earlier in the day I also picked up one bottle each of 2007 and 2008 (very limited, one/person) and two of 2013. The 2007 and 2008 were quite dear and I have now upped my per ounce cost and total cost per bottle even beyond when I got the Westvleteren XII this past spring. As far as I am concerned, The Abyss is every bit as good as Westvleteren XII and 2007 is the only year I have yet to taste. I am stoked.

The Abyss Imperial Stout bottles. 2007, 2008, 2013, 2013

The Abyss Imperial Stout bottles. 2007, 2008, 2013, 2013

If you get a chance, try The Abyss. Doesn’t matter if it’s this years or some other going back to 2006. Just try it. Try as many of the vintages as you can. If you like big stouts you will most likely be pleased.

For me, The Abyss is heaven in a glass. I won’t say it’s “the best beer in the world” because that is just silly. But it is one of my very favorites of what is arguably my favorite style. Thank you, Deschutes!

Halloween 666

Pre-Halloween

Monday, 28 October, my wife noticed that I was only a few unique beer check ins away from 666 on Untapped. She said, “I should try to reach 666 on Halloween and wouldn’t it be fun if it was something a little devilish.” I replied that “That would be easy seeing as we have bottles of Duvel and of Midnight Sun Fallen Angel to drink.”

Halloween

Here we are today at Halloween and I now am at 663 uniques, although I swear it should have been 664. Not sure what happened there. Nonetheless, the goal is to have the Duvel as unique check in 666 on Halloween and the Fallen Angel as unique check in 667 on All Saints Day.
[all of above written on Halloween.]

Bottle and glass of Duvel. Unique check in #666 on Halloween

Bottle and glass of Duvel. Unique check in #666 on Halloween

Post-Halloween wrap-up:

We met our friend Miles and his parents at The Platypus Pub on Halloween for
dinner and drinks. I was still at 664 so I had a taster of Bridge 99 Bull Trout Stout. Bridge 99 was there doing a tasting of four of their beers. Then the wife and I shared a glass of Bend Brewing’s Big Bad Russian Imperial Stout. Miles had brought a couple things he wanted to share so, despite a bottle of Duvel sitting at home in the fridge, I went upstairs to The Brew Shop and grabbed a bottle of Duvel to share around the table. Unique check in 666 on Halloween.

For those who aren’t aware, “duvel” is devil in a Flemish dialect. The standard Flemish is “duivel.” [See Wikipedia for some details. If Google Translate is to be believed, I find it interesting that: "duivel" means "devil," "demon," "fiend," etc. while "Duivel" means "Satan," "Lucifer," "Belial," Jericho," "the Tempter," "Old Nick," and "Old Scratch." I find it interesting that there is a difference. We do do something almost similar with "devil" vs "the Devil." I wonder, though, if there is a definite article present also in Flemish. There's still the difference between "the devil" and a specific singularly named referent. Or is it simply the lowercase vs uppercase "d" doing all the work? Anyone know enough Flemish?]

Fallen Angel I had hoped to make 667 but it slipped to 671. Nonetheless, I did have it on All Saints Day so I’m claiming some version of the original plan was met. Miles had a small group bottle share on the 1st and we consumed, amongst other things, a Midnight Sun Monk’s Mistress as my unique #675, also on All Saints Day.

Maybe that as a connection is reaching but I prefer to think of a monk’s mistress as an angel—fallen or otherwise—and as perhaps a saint. That is, if I were going to believe in either.

Midnight Sun’s description of this wonderful beer:

ABV: 11.5%
IBU: 22

The inspiration for this beer’s name—previously, La Maitresse du Moine—is the beer itself. Its deep, intense flavors inspired the concept of a monk that seeks solace and satisfaction from the sensory pleasure and mind-provoking effects of this liquid temptress.

Mesmerizing Monk’s Mistress seduces your senses at first sip. Its daunting beauty and intriguing flavor fully captivate your attention. Belgian yeast adds character and complexity. We invite you to give in to this little bit of “heaven on earth”.

While Monk’s Mistress Special Dark Ale accompanies a wide variety of dishes, it is also a lovely and engaging beer to keep you company.

Submit. Surrender. Succumb.

Fallen Angel description:

ABV: 8.0%
IBU: 35

Fallen Angel Golden Ale, first brewed on 6-6-6 [JUN 6, 2006], is named in the tradition of Belgian golden strong ales–after the devil himself. We call this beer our “original sin” because it spawned our 2007 Deadly Sin beer series.

Midnight Sun’s Fallen Angel Golden Ale is a traditional Belgian-style golden strong ale–deep gold in color with tiny, conniving bubbles forming a very thick, meticulous head. Effervescent and crisp, this delicious ale tempts the palate with apple, pear and a little earthy mustiness. Its beauty and brightness is angel-like in appearance but the devil in is its strength.

With its introduction in 2006 and its immediate cult following, Fallen Angel was brewed and released about once a year. Beginning in JAN 2012, Fallen Angel was added to our year-round line-up.

How far will you fall?

Based on that description maybe I should have made the Fallen Angel unique 666 but then I would have had to left my friends to go home since there is none available at the Brew Shop.

Michael Jackson’s Beer Companion

Michael Jackson’s beer companion.Jackson, Michael; Running Press 1993WorldCatLibraryThingGoogle BooksBookFinder

Read 11-24 June 2013

This book, published in 1993, is a bit of a time capsule. While all of these styles are still produced by someone, the beers and breweries featured are not necessarily still produced or in business. The books is lavishly illustrated as are most of Jackson’s books. The initial section, Exploring Beer, gives a little history and discusses ingredients. The heart of the book is the 3/4s of the content where he discusses each style, along with representative beers and breweries for each. Beer and Food discusses cooking with beer, matching beer with food, and features twenty-five recipes which includes several desserts. By the way, while there are a couple of vegetarian dishes the recipes are heavily skewed towards meat. The Reference Section includes the glossary and index, and a gazetteer for hunting the classic brews he mentions (or others). It consists of countries broken down by cities or regions and lists shops, breweries and beer gardens. Again, how many of these are still in business? Nonetheless, this is an interesting and still useful book.

I got this book from OSU Valley Library via Summit. Call no. TP 577.J271 1993.

Contents

    • Exploring beer
      • Never ask for “a beer”…
      • The renaissance of beer
      • A civilized drink
      • Taking a world view
      • Malt
      • Water
      • Herbs, spices and hops
      • Yeast
      • A beer-lover’s calendar
    • Great Beer Styles of the World
      • The lambic family
        • Lambic
        • Gueuze
        • Faro
        • Fruit beer
      • Wheat beers
        • Berliner Weisse
        • South German Weizenbier
        • Belgian wheat beer
      • Ales
        • British styles of ale
          • Mild
          • Bitter
          • Pale ale
          • English brown ale
          • Old ale
          • Barley wine
          • Scottish ale
          • Irish ale
        • Belgian styles of ale
          • Belgian ale
          • Flemish brown ale
          • Belgian red ale
          • Saison
          • Belgian golden ale
          • Trappist beer
        • Bière de garde
        • Altbier
        • Kölsch
        • American ale
        • Adelaide sparkling ale
      • Porters and stouts
        • Porter
        • Dry stout
          • Oyster stout
        • Sweet stout
          • Oatmeal stout
        • Imperial stout
      • Lagers
        • Dark lager
        • Vienna-style, Märzen/Oktoberfestbier
        • Pilsner
        • Dortmunder Export
        • Bock beer
      • Extra specialties
        • Steam beer
        • Smoked beer
        • Rye beer
        • Black beer
    • Beer and Food
      • Cooking with beer
      • Matching beer with food
      • Recipes
    • Reference Section
      • Hunting the classic brews: a gazetteer
      • Glossary
      • Index