Loftus – Sustainable Homebrewing

Sustainable Homebrewing: An All-Organic Approach to Crafting Great Beer by Amelia Slayton Loftus
Date read: 09 – 17 January 2017
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2017nfc

Cover image of Sustainable Homebrewing by Amelia Slayton Loftus

Paperback, ix, 357 pages
Published 2014 by Storey Publishing
Source: Deschutes Public Library [641.873 LOFTUS AMELIA]

I enjoyed this quite a bit and would find owning a copy useful. My reservation hinges on what might be a marketing issue. There are several extant, amazing books on beginning homebrewing—from extract to full grain—such that I don’t understand why so much space is spent on it in a specialty book like this. But, then, most do. Which is my point regarding marketing. Perhaps the topic would be too niche to sell on its own but I, for one, would appreciate more on the specialty topic/angle and less of the here-it-is-again basics.

The basics are covered well here and, to be honest, it is, for me, a slog to read basic homebrewing instructions over and over. My eyes start glazing over I have read so very many. [Unless one is looking at the evolution of homebrewing instructions in print and then ….] I would prefer more of the space in a specialty homebrewing book be spent on the specialty topic rather than on basic brewing instructions and equipment coverage, unless it is appropriate to the topic. Perhaps that is just me. Perhaps there is less of a market for such specialty books. I don’t know. Anyway, I heartily recommend this book.

Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Part 1: The allure and the art of homebrewing
  • 1 Looking at essential equipment and supplies
  • 2 Finding organic brewing ingredients
  • 3 The basics of brewing good beer
  • 4 Kicking it up: Brewing from scratch
  • Part 2: Sustainable brewing in the kitchen and garden
  • 5 The homebrewer’s kitchen
  • 6 The homebrewer’s garden
  • Part 3: Brewing organic beer
  • 7 Easier recipes for beginning brewers
  • 8 Advanced all-grain recipes
  • 9 Creating your own organic beer recipes
  • List of beer recipes
  • Metric conversion chart
  • Resources
  • Index

Basically, these are my extremely succinct notes. They ought, at least, give you an idea as to what is behind the chapter titles.

Introduction – two pages. “Being a good brewer,” for her involves good stewardship; sustainability. Lists two handfuls of early organic breweries and beers. Covers her 3 main reasons for brewing organic.

  • Supports organic agriculture and small-scale farming
  • Beer is food. [If you eat organic when possible …]
  • Is cheaper in the long run

Part 1: The allure and the art of homebrewing – covers equipment, ingredients, basic extract brewing plus steeping to all-grain brewing.

1 Looking at essential equipment and supplies – developing a personal ecosystem, considering the cost of manufacturing, fair wage produced and fairly traded. Covers equipment in some detail. Geared towards 5-gallons of lighter beers or smaller batches. Efficient use of raw materials, choosing eco-friendly materials, and finding equipment and supplies. How to be green and ecologically sound with cleaners and sanitizers; reusing them.

2 Finding organic brewing ingredients – covers ingredients and finding sources for organic ones, along with storage; also water and yeast.

3 The basics of brewing good beer – [skip if not beginner/basic, she writes] : Getting started; lots on yeast and making a starter, steeping grains, adding extract, …, hops additions, chilling, fermentation, bottling.

4 Kicking it up: Brewing from scratch – all-grain process, extra equipment needed, pH testing, mashing, …, water chemistry, mash pH, aeration, control of fermentation temperature.

Does not mention no-sparge or BiaB under sparging. A bit of a let down there, honestly.

Part 2: Sustainable brewing in the kitchen and garden

5 The homebrewer’s kitchen – using leftover yeast: harvesting, feeding to animals, yeast broth and yeast extract, vegetarian gravy. Using spent grain: nutritional content, animal feed (recipes for poultry feed and dog biscuits), cooking with spent grain (recipes for brownies, cookies, energy bars, granola, falafel, veggie burgers, pizza dough, assorted breads, pretzels), turning a bad batch of beer into vinegar.

6 The homebrewer’s garden – composting spent grain, hops, and yeast; vermiculture; making mushroom substrate from spent grain; recycling cleaning/sanitizing and cooling water; growing hops; growing barley; malting; kilning specialty malts; malting other grains; adding fruit to beer; adding vegetables to beer; and adding herbs to beer.

Part 3: Brewing organic beer

7 Easier recipes for beginning brewers –recipes, in both extract and all-grain versions, for a wide variety of styles.

8 Advanced all-grain recipes – another wide variety of styles and more complex recipes possibly involving fruit, step mashing, etc. that is a bit above beginner.

9 Creating your own organic beer recipes – converting existing recipes to organic, followed by lots of information on organic ingredients, recipe development, malt yields and similar concepts.

The list of beer recipes lists them alphabetically by name and also broken down, alphabetically also, under the headings: ales, lagers, porters and stouts, wheat beers, and miscellaneous.

Resources covers recipes, recipe calculators, brewing apps; testing laboratories; homebrewing resources; organic brewing ingredient sources; recommended reading.

One note on design: There are lots of “breakouts” but they got distracting due to placement; they were often several pages away from what referenced them. E.g., see Adjusting Hop Additions which is in middle of cooling options [67].

Highly recommended and would love to own a copy. I would like to revisit it for some ideas at some point.

This is the 7th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge 2017 [2017nfc] http://marklindner.info/blog/2017/01/01/2017-reading-challenges-goals/ and the 6th review. [These numbers are (for now) accurate; I had left out a nonfiction book read but not reviewed.]

New post:   #2017nfc #bookreview #organic #homebrewing

Hales, ed. – Beer & Philosophy

Beer & Philosophy: The Unexamined Beer Isn’t Worth Drinking edited by Steven D. Hales; foreword by Michael Jackson

Date read: 5 April / 15-24 September 2016
My rating: 3 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016nfc

Cover image of Beer & Philosophy: The Unexamined Beer Isn’t Worth Drinking edited by Steven D. Hales

Paperback, x, 233 pages
Published 2007 by Blackwell
Source: Summit / Own

Table of Contents

  • Foreword: Michael Jackson.
  • Editor’s Introduction: Steven D. Hales (Bloomsburg University).

Part I: The Art of the Beer:.

  • 1. Thirst for Authenticity: An Aesthetics of the Brewer’s Art: Dale Jacquette (Pennsylvania State University).
  • 2. The Beer Matrix: Reality vs Facsimile in Brewing: Garrett Oliver (Brooklyn Brewery).
  • 3. The Truth About Beer: Michael P. Lynch (University of Connecticut).
  • 4. Good Beer, or How to Properly Dispute Taste: Peter Machamer (University of Pittsburgh).
  • 5. Quality, Schmality: Talking Naturally about the Aesthetics of Beer; or, Why is American Beer So Lousy?: Martin Stack (Rockhurst University) and George Gale (University of Missouri).
  • 6. Extreme Brewing in America: Sam Calagione (Dogfish Head Craft Brewing).

Part II: The Ethics of Beer: Pleasures, Freedom, and Character:.

  • 7. Mill v. Miller, or Higher and Lower Pleasures: Steven D. Hales (Bloomsburg University).
  • 8. Beer and Autonomy: Alan McLeod (Senior Legal Counsel for the City of Kingston, Ontario).
  • 9. Another Pitcher? On Beer, Friendship, and Character: Jason Kawall (Colgate University).

Part III: The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Beer:.

  • 10. Beer and Gnosis: The Mead of Inspiration: Theodore Schick (Muhlenberg College).
  • 11. The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Beer: Neil A. Manson (University of Mississippi).
  • 12. What’s a Beer Style?: Matt Dunn (University of Indiana at Bloomington).

Part IV: Beer in the History of Philosophy:.

  • 13. Drink on, the Jolly Prelate Cries: David Hilbert (University of Illinois at Chicago).
  • 14. Beer Goggles and Transcendental Idealism: Steven M. Bayne (Fairfield University).
  • 15. Beyond Grolsch and Orval: Beer, Intoxication, and Power in Nietzsche’s Thought: Rex Welshon (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs).
  • Index

That subtitle is ridiculous [The Unexamined Beer Isn’t Worth Drinking]. Too easy of a shot and entirely incorrect. Although a propensity to examine one’s beer can be a fine thing, sometimes, in some contexts, beer just does need to be simply drank; not thought about and deity forbid “examined.”

The foreword by Michael Jackson is, of course, sensible. The only issue is that it is somewhat dated now, as many of these pieces are, due to a rapidly changing industry.

“When Fred [Eckhardt] and I first met, his home town, Portland, Oregon, had one brewery” (x).

It is far closer to 90 now.

“Today, there are between 50 and 100 styles of beer being produced in the US, by about 1,500 breweries” (x).

No idea on current number of styles–and by whose counting?–but we’re much closer to 5000 operating breweries in the US, with ~6500 permitted ones.

Certainly not Michael’s fault that the market has changed and, as I said, this is a fault with several of these pieces. Many times market examples are simply that, but sometimes someone uses them to do philosophical analysis and that is pretty much a non-starter. Sure. There is sometimes little choice but I would have hoped the editor focused on more time-insensitive discussions. [MJ is not doing analysis, just commentary, so he gets a bye on this.]

Anyway, the work as a whole is not completely time-bound.

Editor’s Introduction: provides an overview of the chapters themselves and of the groupings (Parts) into which they were put.

Part I The Art of Beer

1 Jacquette: primarily on “authenticity” but is confused, confusing, and extremely prejudiced. Poor philosophy and with the amount of prejudice shown should never have been included in this collection. Period. Certainly should not have been the first piece; although, it did set a very low bar for the rest.

While discussing glassware we get things like the following:

On the Bavarian Maß he says:

“Still, if such tankards are used extensively in certain places where good beer is made, doesn’t this mean that they are an authentic part of beer-drinking culture?

The answer, as we can say in few areas of philosophy, is an unqualified no. Big heavy glass mugs are out” (20) [emphasis in text].

Just. What. The. Actual. Fuck?! The editor should be smacked for allowing this asinine shit. Even if the Bavarians have only been using the Maß for several decades–not his point, or my claim–that does not make it inauthentic. In fact, sitting in a beer garden drinking a Bavarian Lager out of most anything but a Maß would be inauthentic.

“I have seen brandy-snifter beer glasses for specialty beers, and these are often acceptable, if perhaps a little pretentious” (21).

Um. Fuck you, Jacquette.

He finally goes on to decide, quite reluctantly, that a Maß is authentic for current Bavarian culture, but only after deriding the glass for another few pages. Yes, it has issues as a “proper” glass for some purposes but that does not give him license to dismiss it out of hand. Nor are his personal preferences in “an optimal vessel” either (21). Simply not relevant to a philosophical discussion of authenticity.

He is also highly confused on, perhaps ignorant of, how styles evolve. He claims “the good European beers have had in some cases as much as a thousand years, and most at least several hundred, in developing their craft” (27). So I guess Oktoberfest Bier is no longer authentic then.

On whether we must enjoy the truly authentic:

“I may not like Belgian kriek (cherry-flavored) beers — indeed, I personally loathe them — but I think I can recognize an authentic kriek, which in the first place I do not consider to be an authentic beer, without appreciating the flavor, enjoying the taste, or approving the concept” (28).

This is a critically important point but it is again shot through with utter prejudice. He does not show or analyze why kriek maybe ought not be considered authentic but only claims it is not. He also blurs (conceals?) the real point about being able to recognize authenticity despite not enjoying the authentic item or even the concept of it as authentic.

His method for pouring beer (p. 23)–which he calls “[t]he proper method”–is ridiculous and wastes beer.

His ideals of authentic beers are Grolsch, Pacifico, Dos Equis, Red Stripe, Little Kings Cream Ale and so on. In other words, Euro-Lagers are the sine qua non of authentic beer for him. Jacquette is not an idiot but he certainly acted like one in this piece, as did the editor in including this piece.

2 Oliver: “artificial”

Mass market beer is NOT “real beer,” he claims (32).

Based on his butter –> margarine –> butter example, “artificial” is (sometimes) determined by fashion (33).

When he gets to where “the concept of beer style becomes useful” (36) he uses “Pilsner.”  But to the Czechs it is unique—the Pilsner just is Urquell. What he goes on to describe he labels “Pilsner-style beer” (36). Not a huge deal but I think he understood this was a fraught example but kept at it anyway; especially as it helps later with his argument that American mass market lagers are artificial.

All in all this is a definite improvement over the 1st essay.

At the end, he admits that we all have those things we accept as artificial. So the point was …?

3 Lynch: A fairly clear epistemological romp to sort out what sort of truth can be known; mostly in a “good”/ranking way. Quite short and an easy read.

Probably should have been in Part III though.

4 Madamer: doesn’t really get anywhere but is a nice ride. Discusses aesthetic description, evaluation and enjoyment.

The three aesthetic activities he is concerned with are describing, evaluating, and enjoying (53).

Under description:

“This is the main point: Descriptions, of anything, are produced by people for certain purposes. Descriptions are speech acts. As actions they accomplish their purpose or not, but the purposes themselves have to be judged as good or bad on independent grounds” (56).

This is a basic and important point. If you cannot grasp it then you ought never use Untappd or Ratebeer or generally even attempt to provide descriptions to anyone other than yourself.

“Sometimes metaphors are all we have” (60).

Amen! Another basic point about language.

Glad to see we are on an improving quality track so far.

5 Stack & Gale: aesthetic evaluation of beer.

“It can safely be said that the universal, worldwide estimation of these beers [American mass-market] is that they are of poor quality” (66)

“Universal”?! Um, no. They do later back off this claim a bit but it is too late. Two academics–one a philosopher–and they make this basic mistake. I know they are writing “pop” philosophy but who gives a fuck? You still can’t go making universal statements.

 “Acidity, perceived tartness, is measured by the pH scale: …” (67).

No, pH does not equal perceived tartness!

“CoSeteng and others (1989) showed that solutions of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, and acetic acids with equivalent pH and titratable acidity gave significantly different sour taste responses. Likewise, Pangborn (1963) found no relation between pH, titratable acidity, and relative sour taste intensity of several organic acids at both threshold and suprathreshold concentrations” (R34).

The evidence that it is not that simple by a long shot is immensely varied. And large. Humans and other animals seem to have multiple channels for the sour taste and these channels differ widely across species.

“Although significant efforts have been made to understand the chemistry of sour taste, it is not currently possible to accurately predict and modify sour taste intensity in foods by simply knowing the concentrations of acids and pH” (R35).

Both above quotes from:

Neta, E. R. D. C., Johanningsmeier, S. D., & McFeeters, R. F. (2007). The Chemistry and Physiology of Sour Taste—A Review [Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science]. Journal of Food Science, 72(2), R33–R37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00282.x

“Barley is the sine qua non of beer production, and thereby, the foundation of beer quality. That’s where the process begins” (68).

Another universal and, again, incorrect. “Sine qua non” means “an essential condition” and barley is not that. For most beers known to much of the world, yes, but it sure as heck is not essential (in either the common or philosophical sense).

Their understanding of the brewing process is also close to bonkers. Few mashes are done over “several hours” (69). Adjuncts do in fact add (or at a minimum, change the) flavor despite their claim otherwise (69). It just goes on.

“The question of the relation between barleys and adjunct-brewing in American beers deserves a few remarks. Though turn-of-the-century American farmers …” (71).

This book was published in 2007. Which damn century do you fools mean? I grok it from context and perhaps most will but that was two turns-of-the-century ago.

No good passages to point to but import beers (into America) get a consistent pass throughout. I want to know why. Some of those are no better than American mass market ones either (see 74 and others prior).

They created a strategic map, or model, of the industry to compare price against advertising (80-81) but, of course, the market has now changed. Tis not good philosophy to include historically contingent market analysis as a more permanent feature of a phenomenon under analysis.

6 Calagione: I like Sam’s writing well enough but this is mostly “Kumbayah” and “Hail, Columbia!” He says normal Sam things here but they are unwelcome in philosophy.

“Big breweries make a product, small breweries make consumable art” (86).

Give me a fucking break! There may be more art [how is this measured?] in a small brewery’s beers but they are all products.

“As craft brewers we are not in the business of growth — we are in the business of making world-class beer. Growth is just a by-product of our business. Money is a means to our end and not an end in itself” (90-91).

Well ain’t that just convenient? And utter bullshit.

Anyway, if you know how Calagione talks and writes then you got this. Not bad overall but what was the point actually other than to sit around the fire basking in the glow of the craft beer brotherhood? Please tell me we are past this now.

Part II The Ethics of Beer: Pleasure, Freedom, and Character

7 Hales: Mill on pleasures. The pragmatics of polling competent judges is completely avoided as it was in hedonic calculus. They do, though, address what constitutes a competent judge in a domain.

“In short, it is a mistake to hold that pleasures are desirable because the competent judges desire them. Far more reasonable is the view that competent judges desire certain pleasures because those pleasures are antecedently desirable, and the judges, informed and educated about that kind of pleasure, are able to reliably detect the qualities that make those pleasures desirable” (103-4).

“The recognition of quality comes at a cost” (107).

Indeed.

The upshot is that we should, within our means, pursue high quality pleasures (109). Thus, become a knowledgeable beer geek.

8 McLeod: Nice. Shows how Canadian liberty is constrained by ridiculous beer laws; although it applies to all governments. Nicely argued and well-written.

He provides an intro and then covers the law in relation to homebrewing, making beer commercially, traveling with your beer, packaging and advertising and the public experience, and wholesale and retail: taxes, fees and price and how one’s autonomy is curtailed across all of those areas.

Highly recommended!

9 Kawall: friendship. Nice. Basically asks if our “beer buddies” can be true friends.

“So it is here that we begin to see the especial value of beer-inclusive friendships. They include a regular practice which encourages openness and extended conversation, a practice that will improve and deepen a friendship” (128).

Part III The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Beer

10 Schick: William James (& others) on altered states of consciousness/truth/reality

“The dominant theory of knowledge in the West is known as “empiricism.” It holds that sense experience is the only source of knowledge. But it doesn’t indicate what state of consciousness we must be in to acquire knowledge. Ordinary waking consciousness may not be the only state of consciousness that puts us in touch with reality” (140-1).

I do disagree with a few small points but overall is quite good.

The knowledge gained under the influence of beer (or other alcohol or drugs) is neither propositional knowledge/knowing that nor performative knowledge/knowing how, but

          = knowledge by acquaintance/knowing what

11 Manson: a riff on Hume’s dialogue. Meh.

12 Dunn: Read this a couple times as why I looked at the book in the first place after seeing mentioned in some blog post comment thread.

Yes. Yes. Natural kinds are highly problematic. Is OK but could have been much clearer. His conclusion, though, is correct: beer/styles are the wrong kinds of things to have “right” criteria.

13 Hilbert: Berkeley, Bishop G. and his ridiculous “God saves it all, except matter, argument.” It isn’t a bad overview of Berkeley’s argument. It’s just that it is a bad argument; then and still.

14 Bayne: primary / secondary qualities. Kant on space & time. Not especially interesting; what was the larger point but to ramble on about Kant?

15 Welshon: Nietzsche’s antagonism of beer yet praise for intoxication. Again, not bad, but not sure what the point was.

Most of these final chapters seem to be excuses for the authors to write “pop” intros/overviews to their pet philosophers, which is almost always a bad idea.

If we look at the fifteen chapters, they were authored by 16 individuals [one chapter had two authors]. Ten chapters were authored individually by academic philosophers, one by an academic management person and an academic philosopher, and one by a PhD student in History & Philosophy of Science. Only three of the fifteen were authored by non-academics: two by brewmasters and one by a lawyer (and beer blogger).

I gave each chapter a score from 0 [did not like; no point] to two [liked] with one [meh to OK]. If you add up the scores and divide by number of chapters it seems the non-academics did a bit better for me than the academics, but that is also driven mostly by Alan McLeod’s excellent chapter. If I was a bit tougher on Oliver and Calagione, as I probably should be, then that groups score would tank.

  • Academics: 12 / 12 = 1.0
  • Non-acads: 4 / 3 = 1.33

Maybe I ought make three categories and then we would get:

  • Academics: 12 / 12 = 1.0
  • Brewers: 2 / 2 = 1.0 [or less]
  • McLeod: 2 / 1 = 2.0

Overall score per chapter is 16 / 15 = 1.066 so mostly “Meh” or OK.

Not sure what any of that adds up to in the larger scheme. There were three chapters by philosophers that I gave 2s to but also four by academics that I gave 0s.

All in all, is quite variable and I say that some of those folks ought have been able to do better. Much better. Get it from the library unless you’re a philosophy geek like me.

This is the 24th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

Cantwell & Bouckaert – Wood & Beer

Wood & Beer: A Brewer’s Guide by Dick Cantrell and Peter Bouckaert

Date read: 17 July – 19 September 2016
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016nfc

Cover image of Cantwell & Bouckaert's Wood & Beer book

Paperback, xxiv, 228 pages
Published 2016 by Brewers Publications
Source: Own

This was an excellent book, particularly for the pro brewer, but also for the homebrewer with the cash and fortitude to undertake fermenting and/or conditioning/aging in barrels. Of course, other ways to get wood into beer—spirals, chips, powder, etc.—are also covered.

Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Foreword by Frank Book
  • Foreword by Wayne Wambles
  • Introduction
  • 1. The History of the Barrel, or There and Back Again
  • 2. Cooperage
  • 3. Wood & Wooden Vessels
  • 4. Wood Maintenance
  • 5. Flavors from Wood
  • 6. Flavors in Wood
  • 7. Blending and Culture
  • Appendix A: Techniques for Wood- and Barrel-Aging for Homebrewers
  • Appendix B: Wood Primer for Homebrewers
  • Bibliography
  • Index

I utterly recommend this book if you are considering barrel/wood-aging at any level. It can get quite deep at times —but always fascinating—but you only need to absorb small bits as a homebrewer. All in all, a lot of great stuff to be aware of even if you never stick any beer in wood or vice versa. This book will help you gain an even better appreciation of the art of cooperage and that of the barrel-aging of beer.

The bottom line: Every individual barrel [or piece of wood] is its own special snowflake. That is the starting point. Good luck!

This is the 22nd book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

Hennessy, et al. – The Comic Book Story of Beer

The Comic Book Story of Beer: The World’s Favorite Beverage from 7000 BC to Today’s Craft Brewing Revolution by Jonathan Hennessy and Mike Smith (story), and Aaron McConnell (art)

Date read: 13-14 March 2016
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016gnc 2016nfc

Cover image of The Comic Book Story of Beer: The World’s Favorite Beverage from 7000 BC to Today’s Craft Brewing Revolution by Jonathan Hennessy and Mike Smith (story), and Aaron McConnell (art)

Paperback, 173 pages
Published 2015 by Ten Speed Press
Source: Deschutes Public Library

I quite enjoyed this. It strikes a kind of middle ground historically. Seeing as it is a comic book, it can only be kind of simplistic and not very nuanced. It’s history won’t appeal to Ron Pattinson or anyone as historically minded as that but it does better than many other books.

[That is a hat tip to Mr. Pattinson, by the way, but most folks have little time or patience for the actual nuances of history; especially beer history. I am currently reading his Porter! and just ordered his book of vintage homebrew recipes. Porter! is lengthy and not the most coherent narrative since it is a large collection of blog posts but the facts coming out in it are incredibly interesting. Can we talk about the amount of porter shipped to India versus so-called IPA, perhaps? Very intriguing reading, indeed.]

Contents:

  • Introduction: The World’s Favorite Beverage
  • Chapter One: Beer in the Ancient world
  • Chapter Two: The Brewing Process
  • Chapter Three: Dark Ages and Medieval Beer
    • Meet the Beer: Lambic
    • Meet the Beer: Dubbel
  • Chapter Four: The Hops Revolution: Beer Becomes a Commodity
    • Meet the Beer: Bock
  • Chapter Five: Empire and Industry: Beer Goes Big
    • Meet the Beer: Porter
    • Meet the Beer: India Pale Ale
  • Chapter Six: Science and Politics Transforms Beer—Beer Goes Stale
    • Meet the Beer: Pilsner
  • Chapter Seven: Prohibition and Homogenization Blues: Beer Goes Stale
    • Meet the Beer: American Lager
  • Chapter Eight: Drinking on the Shoulders of Giants: Beer Today
    • Meet the Beer: American Pale Ale
    • Meet the Beer: Belgian Wit
  • Acknowledgments
  • Index

Porter named for porters “This new/old product was named for the most common working-class profession in London: that of porters, who carted heavy things around town.” 93

IPA:

“India Pale Ale (IPA) seems to have evolved from aged, or stock, ales brewed on country estates and popular with the 18th-century English gentry.

Brewed to a high strength from lightly kilned malt and aggressively hopped, these beers were well suited for export. They matured in the cask on the way to India. There they were enthusiastically enjoyed—chilled—by upper class merchants and civil servants.” 97

Gets the class issue right [see Pattinson, Porter! for information on porter versus what became IPA in India] but no mention of the larger amount of porter exported for the troops. Also, troops beer most likely not chilled.

On page 28 we get some serious WTF?! action.  Ninkasi, etc. brewsters mother’s milk buxom women in ads in a claimed causal sequence, which is actually fairly correct but such a sad statement on mankind, or at least on advertising (but I’mma step away from advertising real quick-like).

Panel 1 “Shamhat, Ninkasi, Sekhmet…

…not for nothing do these female figures keep turning up in ancient beer stories.”

Panel 2 “For nearly all of beer’s history, brewing and serving has been an almost exclusively female enterprise!

Brewing was something done in the kitchen: traditionally the woman’s domain.”

Panel 3 “Beer is also nourishing—like a mother’s care, like a mother’s milk.”

Panel 4 “And this is precisely why, the world over, buxom women continue to be used to market beer.” 28

Just WTF!? This is how we celebrate women? Goddeses brewsters mother’s milk buxom women in ads.

Just below those four panels we get two more regarding Old Testament beer references:

Panel 5 “The Hebrew word Shekar—related to the Babylonian term shinkaru, meaning “beer”—makes many appearance in the Bible.”

Panel 6 “In the book of Numbers, Yahweh tells Moses that the Israelites should sacrifice about two quarts of beer a day to their god:

In the holy place you shall pour out a drink offering of [beer] to the Lord.

For other biblical mentions of beer see Proverbs 31:6, Isaiah 5:11, 24:9, and 28:7, Proverbs 20:1 and 31:4, and Ecclesiastes 11:1.” 28

I don’t believe any of those others are positive references, except perhaps the one in Ecclesiastes but it is so vague …. As the text says, “It’s very possible that many academics who have worked to translate the Bible expunged from it all mention of beer.” 29 Religious scholars and theologians, perhaps. While they are scholars (better choice of word to use, imho), “academics” seem a little broad. Nitpicky. Yes. Also, why no full citation to the Numbers verse? Biblical citations are extremely easy and the others are complete.

A point is made on page 123 that I had never considered: Lots of Americans away fighting in WWI during the run-up to Prohibition. 123

US involvement in WWI: 6 April 1917 lasted until 11 November 1918

Prohibition in the US was from 1920-1933, and several years longer in places like Oregon and Washington.

“A resolution calling for a Constitutional amendment to accomplish nationwide Prohibition was introduced in Congress and passed by both houses in December 1917. By January 16, 1919, the Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states needed to assure it passage into law.” [Wikipedia article on Prohibition in the United States]

Thus, only a part of the story, to say the least.

All in all, it was a pretty good book. Most of the things that bugged me were quite small. Recommended.

This is the 22nd book in my 2016 9th Annual Graphic Novel/Manga Challenge Sign-Ups

This is the 17th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

McQuaid – Tasty

At my main (or at least, older) blog, habitually probing generalist, I posted a review of John McQuaid’s Tasty: The Art and Science of What We Eat.

I highly recommend it, especially for anyone seriously tasting (and/or judging) foods and beverages, and also anyone interested in the (almost) newest science of flavor, taste and aroma.

Contents:

  • 1 The Tongue Map
  • 2 The Birth of Flavor in Five Meals
  • 3 The Bitter Gene
  • 4 Flavor Cultures
  • 5 The Seduction
  • 6 Gusto and Disgust
  • 7 Quest for Fire
  • 8 The Great Bombardment
  • 9 The DNA of Deliciousness
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Foster – Brewing Porters & Stouts

Brewing Porters & Stouts: Origins, History, and 60 Recipes for Brewing Them at Home Today by Terry Foster

Date read: 31 January – 04 February 2016
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016nfc

Cover image of Foster's Brewing Porters & Stouts

Paperback, 211 pages
Published 2014 by Skyhorse
Source: Own

I loved this book! It was everything I was hoping it would be as an update to the author’s 1992 entry in the Brewers Association Classic Beer Styles Series, 5, Porter, which I reviewed here.

There is more history, a great update on the proliferation of ingredients available to the homebrewer, far more recipes, and I love the inclusion of the stouts. There are also more opinions and they are awesome. Dr. Foster is full of opinions and he tells you why and then it is up to you to choose where you stand. Most are well-reasoned and I generally agree with him.

Highly recommended!

Table of Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: How It All Began…And Nearly Ended
  • Chapter 2: Porter and Stout Definitions
  • Chapter 3: Porter and Stout Raw Materials
  • Chapter 4: The Other Ingredients
  • Chapter 5: Brewing Porters and Stouts—Recipes
  • Selected Bibliography

Introduction

“I started brewing my own beer in Britain, just as the craft of homebrewing was beginning to be revived, then moved to the United States just as homebrewing was legalized here. I have therefore lived through two homebrewing revolutions, and of course through the great craft brewing revolution here. The quality of beer I can now produce at home, and that of those craft beers I can buy, has improved dramatically. Proudly numbered among all these new beers are many porters, stouts, and their sub-styles, and new variations on these are appearing almost daily. Therefore, it seemed that this was a good time to review those styles, their histories, and their brewing methodologies” (2).

Chapter 1: How It All Began…And Nearly Ended

“Since this book is essentially about brewing porters and stouts, I needed to condense this history, and have chosen to do so in a fairly loose chronological manner. That means there may be some omissions of material that other brewing historians consider to be significant enough to be included. I have limited the number of references in the text for reasons of brevity, and have instead appended a list of some of my sources. Note that some of the points I make are purely of my opinion, although I have endeavored to base them on as much fact and general brewing knowledge as possible. I make no apology for this; rather, I hope I might stimulate some intriguing debates on them!” (7-8).

The history of porter and stout is broken into sections by century, from the eighteenth to the twenty-first.

There are a couple times here and elsewhere, and I have seen it in other books, where he writes something like, “And in 1875, Whitbread, for the first time, brewed more ale than porter or stout” (33). What?! They are ales. Were they not thought of that way earlier? And I do believe this sort of thing crops up historically or when writing about beer history so perhaps so. Or is this simply an ‘ales other than stouts and porters’ thing? I believe I got the point in this case and often do when this kind of reference crops up but it seems disconcerting. If it is the case that they were definitely not considered ales in, say, the eighteenth century I think making that explicit would go a long way towards educating the reader. Very small point, I concede.

Chapter 2: Porter and Stout Definitions

This section discusses the style parameters, from the perspective of the Brewers Association, the Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP), and his own. He discusses where they overlap and where they disagree. For instance, he does not consider smoked porter to be its own substyle but merely a variant (53). From this he narrows down the styles/substyles he will be discussing in the rest of the book and providing recipes for.

“I am therefore going to stick to considering the nine designations of brown, robust, and Baltic porters, along with dry, sweet, oatmeal, foreign extra, American, and Imperial stouts. Since most of them have demonstrable historical pedigrees (even the American stout), these categories are useful as a way of looking at these beers. However, they do not include every variety of porter available commercially (let alone those brewed at home)” (53).

From this he goes on to provide sections on each of these nine, plus a couple page discussion of flavored porters and stouts.

Chapter 3: Porter and Stout Raw Materials

This chapter covers malt (and other grist products) primarily, with a small diversion into a few flavorings (lactose, licorice, vanilla, coffee, chocolate, and ‘barrels’). Hops, water and yeast are covered in the next chapter.

The ‘malts’ covered go from the general to the very specific, while he covers how much of what to use in all of the assorted styles he is discussing. They include: base malts (including Vienna and Munich), malt extract, specialty malts (caramel/crystal, Special B, two particular biscuit malts, Special roast malt, Melanoidin, amber, brown, chocolate, black, roasted barley, flaked barley, oat malt/flakes, rye malt, and smoked malts. Foster also includes a section on making your own amber and brown malt.

Chapter 4: The Other Ingredients

Hops, yeast, water, and finings get the Foster treatment here.

Chapter 5: Brewing Porters and Stouts—Recipes

For many this will be the gist of the book and I do look forward to making use of it but, so far, I believe I have and will get the most value from his thoughts in chapter 3 on malts and other grist ingredients.

For each style/substyle he discusses he has included several recipes. These include a couple of all-grain ones and a couple extract and extract plus partial mash recipes per style. After that is a section he entitles, “My Ten Most Interesting Recipes.” Five of these are historical recreations (as best as possible) and the other five he says “are based on modern craft-brewed beers” (189).

At the end of this chapter is his addendum to recipes where he discusses carbonation, kegging, bottling, and stout dispense and nitrogen gas.

One thing not included, unlike in his previous work, are recipes for one-barrel batches. Craft brewers (and homebrewers wanting more than 5-gallon batches) would be on their own to scale up the recipes. Personally, I find that a fair tradeoff for all of the new and updated information, the additional recipes, and the inclusions of the stouts. Recipe scaling information can be found elsewhere.    

Selected Bibliography

This bibliography is much more extensive than the one in the Classic Beer Styles Series from 1992 but he also cites a fair few works in the text that are not listed in the back. This is not an exhaustive list by any means, nor does he intend it to be. Nonetheless, it is several times longer than the one in the 1992 work.

Final comments

Again, I loved this book and I highly recommend it to anyone interested in the brewing of stouts and porters. I will be visiting and revisiting it, no doubt.

This is my favorite book of 2015 so far. It may seem a tad early to make this claim but I did write “so far.” I have also completed 25 books so far this year so not a completely absurd statement.

This is the 6th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

Foster – Porter (Classic Beer Style Series 5)

Porter (Classic Beer Style Series 5) by Terry Foster

Date read: 28-31 January 2016
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016nfc

Cover image of Foster's Porter (Classic Beer Style Series 5)

Paperback, vii, 134 pages
Published 1992 by Brewers Publications
Source: Own

This is an excellent book! The reason I gave it 4 stars is that the discussion of commercial beers and ingredients available to homebrewers (as in Pale Ale) suffers from age and the march of time.

In the author’s defense I just pulled his Brewing Porters & Stouts from my shelf to read next and its copyright date is 2014. I am so utterly happy at this moment! In the introduction to this he addresses these issues as primary motivators for wanting to revisit the topic.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Author
  • 1. A History of Porter
  • 2. Profile of Porter
  • 3. Porter Brewing – Raw Materials and Equipment
  • 4. Porter Brewing Procedures
  • 5. Porter Recipes
  • 6. Commercially Available Porters
  • 7. Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • Index

Commentary

1. A History of Porter includes Origins, The Nature of Porter, Growth of Porter and its Brewers, Porter Brewing Outside of London, and The Decline of Porter.

“The history of porter and the men who made it is fascinating, for it deals with the part that beer has played in the development of Western Culture. Conversely, of course, much of porter’s growth was the result of profound changes in the nature of British society. It is also a microcosm of how our industries has developed; events in porter’s history explain the structure of the modern brewing industry, not only in Britain, but in the other major Western countries.

Porter is intimately tied in with the Industrial Revolution, in which Britain led the world. Through the growth it enabled the brewers to achieve, it was instrumental in the development and technological application of a number of important scientific advances” (Foster, Porter, 17).

2. Profile of Porter includes Porter, and Aroma and Flavor of Porter.

“Personally, I would prefer to think of porter as one beer with a whole continuum of roasted malt flavors” (52).

3. Porter Brewing – Raw Materials and Equipment covers Ingredients (Malt, Hops, Yeast, Water) and Equipment. Malts discusses Pale Malt, Crystal Malt, Malt Extract, Chocolate Malt, Black Malt, Roasted Barley, Wheat Malt, Sugar, Flaked Maize, and Flaked Barley.

He is not for all of those and tells us why he is for each ingredient (and in what amounts) or why not.

Dr. Foster, while admitting that porter fermented with lager yeasts exists, really does not want to talk about it. I really don’t have an issue with that for a couple reasons: a) I mostly agree, although I have had a few tasty lager yeast-based Baltic porters; b) I can find those recipes and procedures elsewhere. His reasoning seems to primarily be that “[t]he original and most modern versions use top-fermenting yeasts” and, more importantly, “that there is little doubt that porter is at its best when one of its flavor aspects is a fruitiness due to the presence of esters” (68). I do like some fruitiness in my porters.

4. Porter Brewing Procedures covers Extract Brewing, Grain Mashing, Wort Boiling, Fermentation, Secondary Fermentation and Cellaring, Packaging, and Serving.

5. Porter Recipes

There are seven recipes for a range of porters. Each recipe includes ingredient lists for extract and all-grain batches of 5 gallons along with all-grain for 1 barrel.

6. Commercially Available Porters

Only covered a few American and British porters as they were not widely available when this was written. This section is about half historical commentary at this point.

7. Further Reading

He provides a “limited number of references” for assorted reasons (121). His newer book does a bit better in this regard, going so far as to include the many books used “that are either out of print or very difficult to find” (121).

His recommended starting points are:

Jackson, Michael, The New World Guide to Beer, 1988, Running Press Book Publishers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Corran, H. S., A History of Brewing, 1975, David & Charles Inc., North Pomfret, Vermont.

Final comments

All in all, a good book but I am most thankful that he has published an updated work which includes his newer research and observations on the availability of commercial versions and better brewing ingredients. It also has the added bonus, in my opinion, of covering stouts. As he writes in the Introduction to Brewing Porters & Stouts:   

“While I was busy amassing ream upon ream of notes about porter brewing in the past, modern craft brewing caught up with me as there was a revolution in brewing this style of beer, as well as a huge expansion in the range and quality of brewing ingredients available. It was soon clear to me that there was a need to redo the porter book. But this time, I wanted to not only include results from my research, but also include stouts, since there are really only derivatives of the original porters” (1).

“Hear! Hear!,” Dr. Foster. Stouts are my end of the porter spectrum and the further down that spectrum the better. I can see reasons for separating them in various style guidelines—useful purposes can be served—but, historically, this seems a better treatment, at least in a work like this. Or perhaps it is simple greed as I want to know what Terry Foster has to say on stouts.

I read this as a recommended book for studying for BJCP certification. I am participating in a study group beginning in early March and going for 12 weeks. I am the #1 standby on the wait list and I am assured several people do not show up for the exam so I hope to be taking the tasting exam in July.

This is the 5th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

Oliver – The Brewmaster’s Table

The Brewmaster’s Table: Discovering the Pleasures of Real Beer with Real Food by Garrett Oliver

Date read: 28 November 2015 – 10 January 2016
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016curr 2015poss

Cover image of Garrett Oliver's The Brewmaster's Table

Paperback, xi, 372 pages
Published 2003/2005 by Ecco
Source: Own

Contents:

  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Part One: The Basics
  • 1 What Is Beer?
  • 2 A Brief History of Beer
  • 3 Principles of Matching Beer with Food
  • Part Two: Brewing Traditions
  • 4 Lambic
  • § Gueuze
  • § Fruited Lambics
  • 5 Wheat Beer
  • § Bavarian Wheat Beer
  • § Belgian Wheat Beer
  • § Berliner Weisse
  • 6 The British Ale Tradition
  • § British Bitter
  • § British Pale ales and India Pale Ales
  • § British Brown and mild Ales
  • § British Porter
  • § Irish and English Stout [what he says re IS]
  • § Scotch and Scottish Ales
  • § British Barley Wines and Old Ales [what he says re BW]
  • 7 The Belgian Ale Tradition
  • § Belgian Pale Ale
  • § Flanders Brown and Red Ales
  • § Saison
  • § Trappist and Abbey Beers
  • § Golden Strong Ales
  • § French Bière de Garde
  • 8 The Czech-German Lager Tradition
  • § Pilsner
  • § Helles
  • § Dortmunder Export
  • § Dark Lager
  • § Vienna, Märzen, and Oktoberfest Beers
  • § Bock and Doppelbock
  • § Schwarzbier
  • 9 New Traditions—American Craft Brewing
  • § American Pale ale, Amber Ale, and India Pale Ale
  • § American Brown Ale
  • § American-Style Wheat Beer
  • § American Amber Lager
  • § Steam Beer
  • § American Porters and Stouts
  • § American Fruit Beer
  • § American Barley Wines
  • 10 Unique Specialties
  • § Altbier
  • § Kölsch
  • § Smoked Beer
  • Part Three: The Last Word
  • Glassware, Temperature, Storage, and Service
  • Beer with Food: A Reference Chart
  • Index

This book is in three parts: The Basics, Brewing Traditions, and The Last Word.

Part Two is by far the largest section of the book, 281 of 383 total pages. Each section here consists of a bit of history of the style, a section on the style with food, and a list of notable producers with descriptions of specific beers and their pairings refined even further.

The are four color photo sections with gorgeous photos of brewhouses, regional specialties with their accompanying beer, and so on, throughout the book. There are also lots of black & white images throughout the book.

Chapter 3 on the Principles of Matching Beer with Food contains the following sections: Aroma; Beer Styles; Impact; Carbonation; Bright and Dark; Bitterness; Malt, Sweetness, and Caramelization; Roast; and After Dinner—Matching Desserts and Cheeses.

“Paying that little bit of attention, both to your food and to your beer, is the difference between having an “OK” culinary life and having one filled with boundless riches of flavor. Learn a little bit about the amazing variety and complexity of flavor that traditional beer brings to the table, and in return I promise you a better life. I’m not kidding—it’s that simple” (39, emphasis in original).

The Aroma section gives us lots of words for the various aromas that come from beer ingredients and other foods but the gist is that, “Harmonizing aromatics between the beer and the food is one of the guiding principles of matching. There’s far more to beer than its aroma, but your nose will often lead you in the right direction” (44).

The Beer Styles section emphasizes determining style as “… style describes what the beer tastes like, what the aromatics are like, how strong it is, what sort of body it has, how it was brewed, and even what its history is” (45). There is a cheat sheet provided on the facing pages of 46-47. “”Cheat Sheet”: Beer Styles and Flavors” provides quick, useful information, such as Bitter is “Fruity and racy, subtle, low carbonation, robust hopping” where IPA is “…, amber, strong, dry, robust hop bitterness and aroma” (46). There are approximately 40 styles elucidated via this shorthand on these two pages.

Impact is the section where we get, in a sense, the most information. First up, “When we are matching beer and food, the most important thing we’re looking for is balance. We want the beer to engage in a lively dance, not a football tackle. In order to achieve the balance we seek, we need to think about the sensory impact of both the beer and its prospective food partner. “Impact” refers to the weight and intensity of the food on the palate” (49). What follows this is a several paragraph “thought exercise” discussing various beer and food combinations that help elucidate further what is meant by impact.

Carbonation tells us that “In finished beer, carbonation gives beer a refreshing lift, concentrates bitterness and acidity, and cleanses the palate. It also lifts the beer’s aromas right out of the glass and presents them to your nose. … The carbonation in beer lifts and scrubs strong flavors from your palate, leaving you as ready to enjoy the next bite as if it were the first” (50).

On the next page, Oliver discusses the range of carbonation and how that works with assorted food choices.

In Bright and Dark we learn that “Brightness refers to a dry briskness on the palate, sometimes with a refreshing zip of acidity. It also refers to citrus or apple-peel aromatics, sometimes from the yeast strain used, but also from some hop varieties. … Darkness refers to roasted flavors such as chocolate, toffee, caramel, and coffee, as well as the flavors and aromas of dark fruits such as plums, raisins, and olives. Sweet spices such as cinnamon and nutmeg belong here too; this is one reason they are often added to stews. Mushrooms are a dark flavor …” (52).

For Oliver it is still all about “harmony” (52).

We also get the highly applicable admonition to “Let’s not confuse bright and dark flavors with light and dark colors, though,” as they are not the same (52, emphasis in original). Often a dark beer has a dark flavor and vice versa with light but this is definitely not always the case!

Under bitterness, we get a discussion of the Italian love of bitterness to start and end a meal, for instance, with something like Campari as an aperitif and a sharp espresso to end it and how this contrasts with Americans’ general distrust of bitterness.

“Well-hopped beers have the ability to cut through heavy sauces, fats, and oils, leaving the palate cleansed and refreshed rather than stunned” (54).

Also critical to understand regarding bitterness in beer, Oliver tells us that “Hops are not the only ingredient that can lend bitterness to a beer. Roasted malts can also add their own bitterness—just as espresso has a roasted bite, so does an Irish stout, and only partly from the hops. In beer, bitterness is focused and accentuated by lowering serving temperatures, higher carbonation, and a low residual sugar content. Conversely, malt sweetness, warmer serving temperatures, and lower carbonation will temper bitterness” (54).

In Malt, Sweetness, and Caramelization we are told that “The warm, breadlike flavors of grain are more prevalent in some styles of beer than others, making them better companions for certain foods. Malty beers tend to be full-bodied and round on the palate” (55).

Perceived sweetness, which is a corollary to malt, depends on four factors: residual sugar, bitterness, carbonation and serving temperature (55). Oliver does a good, succinct job of how those work together and individually affect the beer to generate a perceived sweetness.

Roast expounds on the flavors of roasted malts—primarily across the wide ranges of coffee and chocolate—and how they work with foods.

Desserts and Cheese round out this chapter with some specifics on those topics.

I jumped into a lengthier discussion of this section since, at heart, it should be the core of the book. Alas, I fear it is not. I do believe that Oliver has done a good job overall but it is spread far more throughout the book than concentrated here. Much of what you need to know to pair well is in those detailed style and specific exemplar pages.

Some of the books that have followed this pathbreaking one have done a better job of providing the basics of how to proceed on your own versus the main gist of Oliver’s pairing knowledge being passed on in the style sections, such that the reader must piece more together. Then again, “shoulders of giants” and all that.

For instance, Mirella Amato in Beerology, does a fine job giving one lots of angles from which to explore while giving the subjectivity of individual taste its due. Randy Mosher also does a wonderful job in a short amount of space in Tasting Beer, which I highly recommend overall. Both authors give credit to Oliver, as they should. Another writer, also respecting Oliver, who does a fine job on the topic in a short space is Jeff Alworth in The Beer Bible.

Another early beer and food writer given her due by many is Lucy Saunders. We have, and I have read, her 2013 Dinner in the Beer Garden, which we helped crowd fund. This is more of a cookbook with little in the way of principles but one could learn from it, albeit more slowly perhaps even than Oliver. Saunders has also written Cooking with Beer (1996), Grilling with Beer (2006), and The Best of American Beer & Food (2007), sadly none of which I have seen.

The other writers often bring in the idea of “contrast,” which is an important idea. For Oliver it is (or was) all about the harmony and balance, which is a great place to start but not the only way to go.

I am also hearing really good things about Julia Herz and Gwen Conley’s Beer Pairing: The Essential Guide from the Pairing Pros but I have not seen it yet. I am looking forward to it though.

On cheese and beer pairings I doubt that you can do better than Cheese & Beer by Janet Fletcher.

The best way to proceed may be to peruse one or more of these books and choose a point or two of entry and bravely venture out with (or without) any firm guidance and experiment. Remember to record and grow your experiences from there. They are your taste buds and your palate, after all. No one can tell you how things taste but you.

From English and Irish Stouts with Food:

“The harmony between stouts and chocolate desserts is so big and so wide and so obvious that every restaurant that serves desserts should have at least one stout on its list. If you get only one thing from this book, make this point the keeper—stouts are an absolutely perfect match for chocolate desserts” (144, emphasis in original).

Beer with Food: A Reference Chart is a 7-page quick listing of beers that go with specific foods, ranging from Aioli to Wild boar.

Highly recommended but perhaps not as the first book one peruses on the topic. I feel you can get an easier and quicker start by digging into the short chapters in Mosher or Amato (see above), or others. Oliver is the book you’ll turn to to get a deeper appreciation but one which you’ll have to cull from the entire book.

Foster – Pale Ale

Pale Ale: History, Brewing Techniques, Recipes 2nd ed. (Classic Beer Styles series no. 16) by Terry Foster

Date read: 9 – 16 November 2015

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

Cover of Foster Pale Ale, 2nd ed.

Paperback, xi, 340 pages

Published 1999 by Brewers Publications

Source: Own

Contents:

Acknowledgments

Introduction

  • 1 The Evolution of Pale Ale
  • 2 Style Definitions and Profiles of Pale Ales
  • 3 Brewing Pale Ales
  • 4 Packaging and Dispensing Methods
  • 5 Pale Ale Recipes
  • Appendix A Recommended Commercial Pale Ales
  • Appendix B Suggested Reading
  • Chapter Notes
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • About the Author

Review

I found this quite interesting and I believe it will be very useful when I start picking/modifying recipes and brewing on my own. I do enjoy pale ales and bitters but I believe I like something a bit more “English” and far less West Coast. Seems a good reason to perfect a recipe or four across the spectrum of pale ales, as considered by Foster.

It is a tad out of date in ways but mostly in a (probably) non-critical way. The prime example is the many beers referenced as either comparisons or as commercial examples that are no longer in production. Some of the references to individuals and companies are also a bit dated, as are some of the developments in, say, hops and other areas. The book could stand a bit of an update but it is not significantly less useful either due to its being dated.

Introduction

“This book is an attempt to foster interest in one of the world’s great beer styles and to encourage you to brew it and drink it” (4.) Sounds like a plan to me.

Much expanded along with new material. “I determined that I would not simply revise the earlier book but would write a new book from the ground up” (4).

  • References, more.
  • More discussion of bitter as “largest class of pale ale derivatives in England” (4).
  • Dispense/Real ale section is “considerably more comprehensive” (4).
  • “… more emphasis on extract recipes, since I feel I downplayed that important aspect of homebrewing in the first edition …” (4-5).
  • Historical section “much expanded” (5).

1 The Evolution of Pale Ale

In a bit about the use of adjuncts in English brewing after the Free Mash Tun Act of 1880,

“Further, sugar and cereals are not adjuncts. The term adjunct implies that something was added. Sugar and cereals add nothing; they are merely cheap malt substitutes (62).”

That seems like an unsustainable claim. Lots of sugars add flavors along with doing specific things to, say, the body as do all of the other cereals used. Sugar and cereals are frequently serving in the role of “merely malt substitutes,” whether cheap or not, but many of them contribute to aspects of the beer that are not addressed via standard malts, either, and certainly add something. They are also frequently not cheaper than malt. Small point, indeed, but I felt it needed noting.

2 Style Definitions and Profiles of Pale Ales

“For further interesting discussions on the need for style definitions, read “The Last Wort” by Alan Moen and “Beer Styles: An International Analysis” by Keith Thomas8” (104).

Full citations from Chapter Notes [but good luck finding these; not sure I am going to be able to get my hands on them even].

  • Moen, Alan. “The Last Wort: A Question of Style — The Search for Ales beyond the Pale.” Brewing Techniques (September 1997): 98, 86, 87. [I have no idea what this page numbering means.][Verification of the citation but not available here.]
  • Thomas, Keith. “Beer Styles: An International Analysis.” Brewery History Journal (Summer 1975):35-40. (302) [Not sure if this is complete but is not verification; doesn’t disprove anything either.]

Foster decided the style was a bit more complex than he thought in the the 1st ed.; particularly when one adds dispense type in (104). He includes the English bitters, English pale ale and English IPA. As American subtypes he includes American pale ale, American amber and American IPA.

3 Brewing Pale Ales

He recommends a two-step mash for two-row pale malts as Fix and Fix (see below) demonstrated that a 30-minutes rest at 104 °F (40 °C) before going up to saccharification temperature improved yields as much as 15%. He omits the protein rest that they also recommend as he thinks most two-row malts are highly modified enough and to include it would negatively effect “both foam and malt flavor” (147.) I believe that is a fairly common understanding of most modern fully modified malts.

Thus, he mashes pale ale styles in two steps: 104/155 °F (40/68 °C) (147).

  • Fix and Fix. An Analysis of Brewing Techniques. Boulder, CO.: Brewers Publications, 1997, 24-30.

A lot of good information is covered in this chapter and includes useful tidbits about all ingredients and processes prior to packaging.

4 Packaging and Dispensing Methods

He calls for a pale ale specific glass to be designed as “Pale ale is one of the most important beer styles in the world…” (246).

The Dogfish Head, Sierra Nevada and Spiegelau-designed IPA glass works well with pale ales, especially pale ale and IPA. It truly enhances the aroma, especially hop aroma. But they are fragile, even if that is mostly perception, and a real pain in the ass to wash. [I hand wash my beer glasses with LFD soap]. As to the maybe fragile, I had one for a good two years or so and it got some good use as that is the glass I wanted if I had a pale or IPA to drink. Not my most prominent styles by consumption but one of the few that clamored for one specific glass. Less than two weeks ago it came apart in my hand while I was washing it. I was very lucky in that the deep slice into the pad of my left right thumb [I am left-handed] was at a shallow oblique angle.

I kind of want two to replace it but they are a pain.

[I am not getting into the why of the whole line now from Spiegelau of style-specific glasses that are variations on the shape of this one; there is definitely a kind of marketing or schtick angle to them. The IPA glass does truly enhances hop aroma in a way that I much prefer; it does not—for me anyway—affect the flavor though. I would love to try the stout glass as they may be my favorite styles; no declarations. The barrel-aged one looks quite useful but in a general way already covered by our glassware. The stout potentials, glass-wise, are where we shine already so justifying a spendy “weird” one is tough. I won the IPA glass at a Sierra Nevada tasting. The stout glass was done with Lefthand and Rogue. Not sure where I am going to win of one them.]

5 Pale Ale Recipes

Recipes are provided for all of the substyles, English and American, that Foster identified and all include three recipes: 5-gallons malt extract, 5-gallons all grain, and one-barrel all grain.

The ones that I am particularly interested in are the special bitter and the English pale ale. American pale at some point, of course. Then a fine-tuning of and to my taste to find a mix of English and American pale. Perhaps with southern hemisphere hops. Who knows?  I certainly do not as I have yet to have a pale ale I can’t live without. I have had tasty ones, and there are some I prefer at this point, but they are not “perfect” pales to me. Looking forward to exploring.

Appendix A Recommended Commercial Pale Ales

This is a prime example of content in dire need of updating. I cannot begin to know about the English examples but I guarantee some of those are no longer in production or have radically altered in brewery consolidations/closures. The list for the US certainly is problematic: Ballantine’s IPA, Bert Grant’s IPA. Some others are questionable and most are of very limited distribution even if extant.

Appendix B Suggested Reading

Includes the following topics of suggested resources:

  • Malt Extract Selection
  • Malt Analysis
  • Methods for Preparation of Crystal Malt
  • Barley-Based Syrups
  • Hop Varieties
  • Traditional Fermenters
  • Yeast Strain Selection
  • Yeast Cultures
  • Brewing Water Chemistry
  • Counterpressure Bottling
  • Handling and Selection of Kegs
  • Brewing Real Ale
  • Where to Find Real Ale
  • Source of Suppliers

Chapter Notes

Lots of good sources in both the suggested readings and the chapter notes.

Highly recommended for anyone interested in brewing pale ales and/or the styles Foster places within their kin: English bitters, English pale ale, English IPA, American pale ale, American amber and American IPA.

Bostwick and Rymill – Beer Craft

Beer Craft: A Simple Guide to Making Great Beer by William Bostwick and Jessi Rymill

Date read: 23 October – 01 November 2015
My rating: 4 of 5 stars

BostwickandRymillBeerCraft

Paperback, 176 pages
Published 2011 by Rodale
Source: Deschutes Public Library

Contents:

  • Authors’ Note
  • Beer History
  • 1 Learn: The Brewing Steps; The Ingredients
  • 2 Make: The Great Recipes; Bonus Steps
  • 3 Drink: Tasting and Troubleshooting
  • 4 Design: Branding Your Brewery
  • 5 Repeat: Outfit Your Brewery; Log Your Brews
  • Glossary
  • Resources
  • Index
  • Acknowledgments
  • Credits
  • Craft Brewers of America (spread throughout; short interviews with Ken Grossman (Sierra Nevada), Bret & Eric Kuhnhenn (Kuhnhenn), John Maier (Rogue), Greg Koch (Stone), Ron Jeffries (Jolly Pumpkin), Lauren Salazar (New Belgium), and Shane C. Welch (Sixpoint).

Comments:

This book focuses on making small batches of beer: “We brew on a budget, in a tiny apartment kitchen, without any fancy equipment. We brew from scratch, with all-natural whole grains instead of canned extracts. We like inventing our own recipes. And we brew in small, one-gallon batches—they’re quick, easy to experiment with, and they actually fit on our stovetop” (7).

The book is heavily illustrated and almost all of them work well. It is a small book being 7” h x 6” w and just over 0.5” thick.

All-in-all, if you are interested in brewing smaller bathes then this book might work well for you. If not, it still has some relevance but this is not the only book on homebrewing, nor does it aim (or claim) to be. I’m still undecided on my batch sizes but am considering going smaller so this was a very useful book for me. For basic brewing I would turn to other books first, and they do list a couple of great ones in the Resources section.

I am not really sure why a small book on brewing needs a section on beer history but we get 14 page of it; well, a few of those are large infographics but still. Roughly 8% of this book on brewing is essentially wasted on general beer history.

Chapter 1 Learn covers sanitization, the six brewing steps, and the ingredients. There is a “Field Guide” for malt, hops, and yeast, along with practical tips on all of these ingredients. There is also another handy infographic which shows the basic grain bill for the ten styles of beer that they cover.

Chapter 2 Make consists of The Great Recipes, which has recipes for 10 styles: pale ale, brown ale, porter, stout, Scottish ale, wheat beer, saison, abbey ale, Pilsner and barleywine. The Bonus Steps section looks at specialty grains, spices & herbs, extra hops (techniques such as first wort hopping, using a hopback, …), sugars, fruits, barrel-aging, and sour beers.

Chapter 3 Drink: Tasting and Troubleshooting discusses pouring beer, tasting, troubleshooting problems, flavor identification, and beer and food pairings. For each of the ten styles a cheese plate and dinner menu is provided; well, barleywine gets a dessert menu instead. Glassware is the last thing covered.

Chapter 4 Design: Branding Your Brewery provides ideas for label design, labeling, and bottle caps. At first I thought this was a waste (and it still gets a tad too much room perhaps) but one of the authors is a designer and editor. According to the About the Authors, Jessi Rymill “collects labels and bottle cap and wonders why the beers with the weirdest designs usually taste the best” (inside back flap). With that in mind it makes perfectly good sense.

Chapter 5 Repeat. Outfit Your Brewery covers equipment, while Log Your Brews provides sheets for recording the information about your brews and one for tasting notes.

The Resources page is short but contains some great references. It is broken down into Beer Craft (their websites & Twitter), Supplies, Organizations, Magazines, Books (broken into Recipes, Advanced Techniques, Tasting and Pairing, History, and Design), Websites (broken into Tasting and Rating Beer; Beer Sample Testing; and Labels, Caps, and Breweriana).

To get a feel for the design of the book visit the book’s page at http://beercraftbook.com/ They also have a blog.

Recommended for a look if you are interested in brewing small batches of beer or if you are interested in designing labels and/or bottle caps and have no idea where to begin.