Loftus – Sustainable Homebrewing

Sustainable Homebrewing: An All-Organic Approach to Crafting Great Beer by Amelia Slayton Loftus
Date read: 09 – 17 January 2017
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2017nfc

Cover image of Sustainable Homebrewing by Amelia Slayton Loftus

Paperback, ix, 357 pages
Published 2014 by Storey Publishing
Source: Deschutes Public Library [641.873 LOFTUS AMELIA]

I enjoyed this quite a bit and would find owning a copy useful. My reservation hinges on what might be a marketing issue. There are several extant, amazing books on beginning homebrewing—from extract to full grain—such that I don’t understand why so much space is spent on it in a specialty book like this. But, then, most do. Which is my point regarding marketing. Perhaps the topic would be too niche to sell on its own but I, for one, would appreciate more on the specialty topic/angle and less of the here-it-is-again basics.

The basics are covered well here and, to be honest, it is, for me, a slog to read basic homebrewing instructions over and over. My eyes start glazing over I have read so very many. [Unless one is looking at the evolution of homebrewing instructions in print and then ….] I would prefer more of the space in a specialty homebrewing book be spent on the specialty topic rather than on basic brewing instructions and equipment coverage, unless it is appropriate to the topic. Perhaps that is just me. Perhaps there is less of a market for such specialty books. I don’t know. Anyway, I heartily recommend this book.

Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Part 1: The allure and the art of homebrewing
  • 1 Looking at essential equipment and supplies
  • 2 Finding organic brewing ingredients
  • 3 The basics of brewing good beer
  • 4 Kicking it up: Brewing from scratch
  • Part 2: Sustainable brewing in the kitchen and garden
  • 5 The homebrewer’s kitchen
  • 6 The homebrewer’s garden
  • Part 3: Brewing organic beer
  • 7 Easier recipes for beginning brewers
  • 8 Advanced all-grain recipes
  • 9 Creating your own organic beer recipes
  • List of beer recipes
  • Metric conversion chart
  • Resources
  • Index

Basically, these are my extremely succinct notes. They ought, at least, give you an idea as to what is behind the chapter titles.

Introduction – two pages. “Being a good brewer,” for her involves good stewardship; sustainability. Lists two handfuls of early organic breweries and beers. Covers her 3 main reasons for brewing organic.

  • Supports organic agriculture and small-scale farming
  • Beer is food. [If you eat organic when possible …]
  • Is cheaper in the long run

Part 1: The allure and the art of homebrewing – covers equipment, ingredients, basic extract brewing plus steeping to all-grain brewing.

1 Looking at essential equipment and supplies – developing a personal ecosystem, considering the cost of manufacturing, fair wage produced and fairly traded. Covers equipment in some detail. Geared towards 5-gallons of lighter beers or smaller batches. Efficient use of raw materials, choosing eco-friendly materials, and finding equipment and supplies. How to be green and ecologically sound with cleaners and sanitizers; reusing them.

2 Finding organic brewing ingredients – covers ingredients and finding sources for organic ones, along with storage; also water and yeast.

3 The basics of brewing good beer – [skip if not beginner/basic, she writes] : Getting started; lots on yeast and making a starter, steeping grains, adding extract, …, hops additions, chilling, fermentation, bottling.

4 Kicking it up: Brewing from scratch – all-grain process, extra equipment needed, pH testing, mashing, …, water chemistry, mash pH, aeration, control of fermentation temperature.

Does not mention no-sparge or BiaB under sparging. A bit of a let down there, honestly.

Part 2: Sustainable brewing in the kitchen and garden

5 The homebrewer’s kitchen – using leftover yeast: harvesting, feeding to animals, yeast broth and yeast extract, vegetarian gravy. Using spent grain: nutritional content, animal feed (recipes for poultry feed and dog biscuits), cooking with spent grain (recipes for brownies, cookies, energy bars, granola, falafel, veggie burgers, pizza dough, assorted breads, pretzels), turning a bad batch of beer into vinegar.

6 The homebrewer’s garden – composting spent grain, hops, and yeast; vermiculture; making mushroom substrate from spent grain; recycling cleaning/sanitizing and cooling water; growing hops; growing barley; malting; kilning specialty malts; malting other grains; adding fruit to beer; adding vegetables to beer; and adding herbs to beer.

Part 3: Brewing organic beer

7 Easier recipes for beginning brewers –recipes, in both extract and all-grain versions, for a wide variety of styles.

8 Advanced all-grain recipes – another wide variety of styles and more complex recipes possibly involving fruit, step mashing, etc. that is a bit above beginner.

9 Creating your own organic beer recipes – converting existing recipes to organic, followed by lots of information on organic ingredients, recipe development, malt yields and similar concepts.

The list of beer recipes lists them alphabetically by name and also broken down, alphabetically also, under the headings: ales, lagers, porters and stouts, wheat beers, and miscellaneous.

Resources covers recipes, recipe calculators, brewing apps; testing laboratories; homebrewing resources; organic brewing ingredient sources; recommended reading.

One note on design: There are lots of “breakouts” but they got distracting due to placement; they were often several pages away from what referenced them. E.g., see Adjusting Hop Additions which is in middle of cooling options [67].

Highly recommended and would love to own a copy. I would like to revisit it for some ideas at some point.

This is the 7th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge 2017 [2017nfc] http://marklindner.info/blog/2017/01/01/2017-reading-challenges-goals/ and the 6th review. [These numbers are (for now) accurate; I had left out a nonfiction book read but not reviewed.]

New post:   #2017nfc #bookreview #organic #homebrewing

The role of beer books (The Session #115)

The Session, or Beer Blogging Friday

The Session, or Beer Blogging Friday

This month’s Session is hosted by Blog Birraire (Joan Birraire in Barcelona) and is on “the role of beer books.

“The discussion at hand is “The Role of Beer Books”. Participants can talk about that first book that caught their attention, which brought them to get interested in beer; or maybe about books that helped developing their local beer scene. There’s also the -bad- role of books that regrettably misinform readers because their authors did not do their work properly. There are many different ways to tackle this topic.

The Session has been about books before just once, and it was about those that hadn’t already been written. I believe that their importance for the beer culture makes books worthy for another Session. To participate in the current Session just write a comment down here with a link to the article on -or before- September 2nd, so that I can include it on my Round Up.”

05 September 2016: Update posted below

Being me and being about books this is long and perhaps even rambling. Sue me. I’m a reader, a librarian and a cataloger.

The short version: the role of beer books is education to entertainment, and hopefully a bit of both at the same time, along with any other roles between or on other, orthogonal axes that people may have for any particular book in a time and a place.

First beer books

I doubt that it was my first “beer book,” as I had been collecting beer cans since the age of 12, but I received a copy of Michael Jackson’s The World Guide to Beer, 1st US ed. for Christmas 1978. As I was a 19-year-old US soldier stationed in then West Germany, this is the book that first opened my eyes more fully to the world of beer, as it did for many, many others.

Prior to that I was given a copy of Will Anderson’s, The Beer Book; an Illustrated Guide to American Breweriana, 1st US ed. by my parents for my 16th birthday (1975). Somewhere in and around here I also got copies of The Beer Cans of Anheuser-Busch: an Illustrated History (©1978 so one of my earliest “beer books”) and The Class Book of U.S. Beer Cans (©1982), both new. Somewhere in there I also acquired a copy of The International Book of Beer Can Collecting (©1977).

Of course I read all of these books, some, in particular Jackson’s World Guide, several times.

More Recently

For a long time my interest in reading about beer waned as did my can collecting. I am simply ecstatic that I never got rid of any of my early beer books, unlike many other books over the years or like the vast majority of my can collection that was actively worked on for almost two decades. Too many moves. Too many dollars spent on storage. Most of the cans had gone long before we moved to Oregon, although most were shed over a ~20 year period.

Books Owned

More recently since moving to Bend, Oregon my interest in all aspects of beer has been rekindled. According to LibraryThing—which until now has served as my personal catalog—I own 87 books having something to do with beer or brewing, plus there are a couple that aren’t in as they need manual cataloging and I haven’t yet.

Books Read

My Goodreads account has 118 books on my beer shelf. Bouncing that off of the read shelf I show 74 as read, 1 skimmed, 1 gave up on (had a better version), 1 on pause, and 3 currently being read. Many of those would have come from assorted libraries, both public and academic.

My beer blog

My blog is named “By the barrel; or, the Bend Beer Librarian.” Sadly, I have done a poor job at reviewing all of these books. There are many reasons for that, only a few of which are actually good/legit ones. I always strive to do better although I see seven beer books waiting for reviews on my review-these-damned-books-already (physical) shelf next to my desk. There are of course many more that aren’t sitting here needing reviews. Some of those currently waiting are:

  • Alworth – The Beer Bible
  • Acitelli – The Audacity of Hops
  • Zainasheff & Palmer – Brewing Classic Styles
  • Papazian – The Complete Joy of Homebrewing, 4th ed.
  • Amato – Beerology
  • Dave Miller’s Homebrewing Guide
  • Herz and Conley – Beer Pairing

Others waiting to be reviewed, not directly related to beer but of immense overlap and interest possibly, include:

  • Halloran – The New Bread Basket
  • McQuaid – Tasty

Of course, these are just those books still to hand. ::sigh::

The Role of Beer Books

So what do I consider the “role of beer books”? I may not be much of a reference librarian—my specialty is elsewhere—but as a reader (and a cataloger) that “role” is completely dependent upon the context(s) brought to bear by the reader and cannot really be given much in the way of an answer unless that context is included.

Education

Education is the simple and most relevant generic (and specific) answer. As you can see from just the above list, my personal beer book-enabled education covers a lot of ground from brewing to the history of craft beer to style knowledge to beer and food pairing to almost encyclopedic works and on from there to the revival of craft grain/malt production to the science of taste.

Early spring this year I went on a book buying binge to ensure I had most of the books in the BJCP Judge Certification Program “BJCP Beer Exam Study Guide” [see pg. 3-4] as I was involved in a 12-week tasting exam prep class and hoping to take the tasting exam [I did manage to take it on 23 July and now get to spend a few agonizing months waiting on my score]. I already had quite a few of the books listed but I got almost all of the others, except for the individual style books in the Classic Beer Styles Series from Brewers Publications I didn’t already own.

To backup, my very first beer books were books about beer can collecting and were for both education (history, production) and to see far more of the variety of what was out there (can porn) than I could encounter in my Midwest home town and surrounding environs. Will Anderson’s book is more generally about breweriana and so helped broaden my education beyond cans.

Michael Jackson’s book was given to me just a few months after I had arrived in Europe for my first tour of duty. I knew styles existed, of course, but this book was a real eye opener.

Nowadays my interests are far broader and I have a massive amount to learn! I want to be a competent and confident beer judge. I want to brew beers well that Sara and I like, along with understanding their historical and current cultural contexts. I want to be solid at beer and food pairing. I want to understand how we got to where we are culturally via archaeology, anthropology, ethnology and so on (across cultures). I want to understand as much of the science of brewing as I can. I want to enjoy what I read, at least some of the time. I could probably elucidate many other reasons for a desire to learn about beer and to be entertained by beer writers.

On Bend, Central Oregon and Oregon beer

If you are interested in the beer, breweries, and history of Bend, Central Oregon and Oregon then I highly recommend the following:

  • Jon Abernathy – Bend Beer: A History of Brewing in Central Oregon
  • Brian Yaeger – Oregon Breweries
  • Logan Thompson – Beer Lover’s Oregon: Best Breweries, Brewpubs & Beer Bars

For the larger region but covering Oregon also are:

  • Lisa M. Morrison – Craft Beers of the Pacific Northwest: A Beer Lover’s Guide to Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia
  • Gary and Gloria Meier – Brewed in the Pacific Northwest: A History of Beer Making in Oregon and Washington

All of these books are a bit dated; some more than others. They are either primarily history (Abernathy & the Meiers) or Regional guidebooks (the rest; and the most dated).

“Beer books” is a non-category

I think beer books is too broad a “category” to consider as a whole; as in it isn’t really a category, far too amorphous. In 2013, I gave a talk on beer books during Central Oregon Beer Week and this is how I broke down what I talked about:

Those I addressed:

  • General
  • Beer porn
  • Reference
  • Beer business
  • Historical
  • Breweriana
  • Trivia
  • Regional Guidebooks

Those I did not:

  • Homebrewing
  • Brewing science

No doubt other categories could be named as no doubt some of these could be split further.

The role of a regional guidebook is generally going to be much different than a book of beer porn or one on the business of beer or one on brewing science and so forth. A book of beer can porn serves one role to a collector and another to a student of mid- to late-20th century commercial art.

Conclusion; or, a return

Thus, I am going to say that the role of beer books is education to entertainment, and hopefully a bit of both at the same time, along with any other roles between or on other, orthogonal axes that people may have for any particular book in a time and a place (context).

Update

I have received a few comments regarding the Brewers Publications Classic Styles series. I believe that I could have been a bit clearer in places in my post but let me offer some comments to take or leave as you please.

I believe that the only books I explicitly recommended were under the heading ON BEND, CENTRAL OREGON AND OREGON BEER. All of those are technically historical documents at this point; one always was and a second mostly was. But the first four are still close enough to the present to be useful even if lots of newer breweries are left out. Any other book(s) mentioned I meant to neither recommend nor not; many I would but that was not my point. I was attempting to discuss the role of books from my perspective and not which were good or bad. Perhaps I should have had a small section on the use/role of books that have bad or contested information. That would include pretty much every beer-related book ever written to some extent. The reason I mentioned the Classic Styles series was in the context of acquiring the recommended books to study for the BJCP exams. Clearly I did not believe that those style guides were necessary for my studying.

I am aware that there are some definite issues with the Classic Styles series books. I do not have enough brewing chops to provide much useful critique though, except in the rarest of circumstances and that would still be based on book learning. I do know that some of the “history” is definite bunk. I also realize that they still sell. I have even picked up a couple—all used—as primarily archival documents, if you will. Not necessarily to learn how brew the styles, nor to believe everything written in them—I do that with no book; do you?—but to take them as an artifact of a time and a place.

I do my best not to slog products here—especially those creative endeavors of one or two authors—but rather avoid them or discuss them in a context that hopefully doesn’t entail recommending them. Others far better qualified have addressed the deficiencies on the individual Classic Styles titles and I leave it to them.

I have read several books—some of them fairly new—by big names in the beer world and I thought them either not at all worth the paper they were printed on; there are more older books that fit in that category, thankfully. I gave them a low rating in Goodreads and moved on without writing a review. I do not believe in the “If you don’t have something nice to say …” school of thought but I also see little reason to be an ass for the fun of it. I get excitable enough, which turns me into something of an ass on occasion, that I do not need to pursue it as hobby.

Besides, I have too many outstanding reviews still to be written for books that I do want to recommend to bother writing reviews for ones I find lacking.

I apologize if I failed to pull apart some of these issues but they did not seem particularly pertinent to me in my thinking on the role of beer books at the time I was writing my post. That does not mean they couldn’t have, and maybe should have been, included; or, I could have been clearer about what I was recommending and what I was not. But that was also not my point.

My point is that use of any particular book is up to the individual reader. And while we may or may not be privy to the specific failings of any given book, that too is a part of the context that we need to attempt to bring to it, even before reading sometimes. That is often difficult after reading it. Makes life a little less uncertain to say the least but you should regard pretty much all of your knowledge as potentially fallible and kept open to actual experience anyway.

To decide if a given book is relevant to your own purpose(s) is a critical, complex, and, yes, often fraught undertaking.

That was an awful lot of words to say that “mentions do not imply endorsement.”

Hennessy, et al. – The Comic Book Story of Beer

The Comic Book Story of Beer: The World’s Favorite Beverage from 7000 BC to Today’s Craft Brewing Revolution by Jonathan Hennessy and Mike Smith (story), and Aaron McConnell (art)

Date read: 13-14 March 2016
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Challenges: 2016gnc 2016nfc

Cover image of The Comic Book Story of Beer: The World’s Favorite Beverage from 7000 BC to Today’s Craft Brewing Revolution by Jonathan Hennessy and Mike Smith (story), and Aaron McConnell (art)

Paperback, 173 pages
Published 2015 by Ten Speed Press
Source: Deschutes Public Library

I quite enjoyed this. It strikes a kind of middle ground historically. Seeing as it is a comic book, it can only be kind of simplistic and not very nuanced. It’s history won’t appeal to Ron Pattinson or anyone as historically minded as that but it does better than many other books.

[That is a hat tip to Mr. Pattinson, by the way, but most folks have little time or patience for the actual nuances of history; especially beer history. I am currently reading his Porter! and just ordered his book of vintage homebrew recipes. Porter! is lengthy and not the most coherent narrative since it is a large collection of blog posts but the facts coming out in it are incredibly interesting. Can we talk about the amount of porter shipped to India versus so-called IPA, perhaps? Very intriguing reading, indeed.]

Contents:

  • Introduction: The World’s Favorite Beverage
  • Chapter One: Beer in the Ancient world
  • Chapter Two: The Brewing Process
  • Chapter Three: Dark Ages and Medieval Beer
    • Meet the Beer: Lambic
    • Meet the Beer: Dubbel
  • Chapter Four: The Hops Revolution: Beer Becomes a Commodity
    • Meet the Beer: Bock
  • Chapter Five: Empire and Industry: Beer Goes Big
    • Meet the Beer: Porter
    • Meet the Beer: India Pale Ale
  • Chapter Six: Science and Politics Transforms Beer—Beer Goes Stale
    • Meet the Beer: Pilsner
  • Chapter Seven: Prohibition and Homogenization Blues: Beer Goes Stale
    • Meet the Beer: American Lager
  • Chapter Eight: Drinking on the Shoulders of Giants: Beer Today
    • Meet the Beer: American Pale Ale
    • Meet the Beer: Belgian Wit
  • Acknowledgments
  • Index

Porter named for porters “This new/old product was named for the most common working-class profession in London: that of porters, who carted heavy things around town.” 93

IPA:

“India Pale Ale (IPA) seems to have evolved from aged, or stock, ales brewed on country estates and popular with the 18th-century English gentry.

Brewed to a high strength from lightly kilned malt and aggressively hopped, these beers were well suited for export. They matured in the cask on the way to India. There they were enthusiastically enjoyed—chilled—by upper class merchants and civil servants.” 97

Gets the class issue right [see Pattinson, Porter! for information on porter versus what became IPA in India] but no mention of the larger amount of porter exported for the troops. Also, troops beer most likely not chilled.

On page 28 we get some serious WTF?! action.  Ninkasi, etc. brewsters mother’s milk buxom women in ads in a claimed causal sequence, which is actually fairly correct but such a sad statement on mankind, or at least on advertising (but I’mma step away from advertising real quick-like).

Panel 1 “Shamhat, Ninkasi, Sekhmet…

…not for nothing do these female figures keep turning up in ancient beer stories.”

Panel 2 “For nearly all of beer’s history, brewing and serving has been an almost exclusively female enterprise!

Brewing was something done in the kitchen: traditionally the woman’s domain.”

Panel 3 “Beer is also nourishing—like a mother’s care, like a mother’s milk.”

Panel 4 “And this is precisely why, the world over, buxom women continue to be used to market beer.” 28

Just WTF!? This is how we celebrate women? Goddeses brewsters mother’s milk buxom women in ads.

Just below those four panels we get two more regarding Old Testament beer references:

Panel 5 “The Hebrew word Shekar—related to the Babylonian term shinkaru, meaning “beer”—makes many appearance in the Bible.”

Panel 6 “In the book of Numbers, Yahweh tells Moses that the Israelites should sacrifice about two quarts of beer a day to their god:

In the holy place you shall pour out a drink offering of [beer] to the Lord.

For other biblical mentions of beer see Proverbs 31:6, Isaiah 5:11, 24:9, and 28:7, Proverbs 20:1 and 31:4, and Ecclesiastes 11:1.” 28

I don’t believe any of those others are positive references, except perhaps the one in Ecclesiastes but it is so vague …. As the text says, “It’s very possible that many academics who have worked to translate the Bible expunged from it all mention of beer.” 29 Religious scholars and theologians, perhaps. While they are scholars (better choice of word to use, imho), “academics” seem a little broad. Nitpicky. Yes. Also, why no full citation to the Numbers verse? Biblical citations are extremely easy and the others are complete.

A point is made on page 123 that I had never considered: Lots of Americans away fighting in WWI during the run-up to Prohibition. 123

US involvement in WWI: 6 April 1917 lasted until 11 November 1918

Prohibition in the US was from 1920-1933, and several years longer in places like Oregon and Washington.

“A resolution calling for a Constitutional amendment to accomplish nationwide Prohibition was introduced in Congress and passed by both houses in December 1917. By January 16, 1919, the Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states needed to assure it passage into law.” [Wikipedia article on Prohibition in the United States]

Thus, only a part of the story, to say the least.

All in all, it was a pretty good book. Most of the things that bugged me were quite small. Recommended.

This is the 22nd book in my 2016 9th Annual Graphic Novel/Manga Challenge Sign-Ups

This is the 17th book in my Nonfiction Reading Challenge hosted at The Introverted Reader

Yaeger – Red, White, and Brew

Red, white, and brew Red, white, and brew: an American beer odysseyBrian Yaeger; St. Martin’s Press 2008WorldCatLibraryThingGoogle BooksBookFinder 

Brian Yaeger’s Red, White, and Brew: An American Beer Odyssey, while now six-years-old, is still a timely trip across America and its craft beer scene. Some of it seems so fresh and some of it really made me go, “Wow! This was only six or seven years ago?”

I read the book October 13 – November 9, 2014. I did not take any notes and just took it a bit at a time. This is, though, a book a reader could tear through. Heck, that might even make it seem even a bit more like you were there with him on his often hectic schedule.

It is certainly a timepiece. But I believe those to be of considerable potential value and this is one of those kind.

I got my copy used at The Book Bin in Corvallis, Oregon for $8.25. You can get it for Kindle for $9.99 and this would probably actually be a great book as an ebook. Not quite as simple a layout as a standard work of fiction but close. New at amazon would set you back $13.45. Used copies all over. And many public libraries still have it, including some as an ebook.

Starting in New England and heading counterclockwise around the country, more-or-less, Yaeger visits 37 breweries/brewpubs in roughly 14 areas of the country. His visits range from tiny Electric Brewing (Bisbee, AZ) to the likes of Widmer Brothers or Sierra Nevada.

There are probably no lessons here; nor do there need to be. This meandering odyssey of a cross-country ramble does remind us that beer is indeed a social lubricant. It also captures, as best a small slice of time can, a valuable snapshot of the diversity of the American craft beer scene around 2005 and 2006.

So pick yourself up a copy, pop open a beer, and sit down for an enjoyable read.

Bend Beer: A History of Brewing in Central Oregon. Get it!

Bend Beer: A History of Brewing in Central Oregon by Jon Abernathy is out today and if you have any interest in Bend and Central Oregon history and, in particular, the region’s history of brewing then you need this book.

It is currently “the definitive” book on brewing in Central Oregon, but I know even Jon wants more answers to some things. There is more he could not fit due to space constraints. Such is book authorship.

I heartily and fully recommend this book.

Cover of Bend Beer by Jon Abernathy. Photo by Gina Schauland.

Cover of Bend Beer by Jon Abernathy. Photo by Gina Schauland.

That said, and with hopefully more to come, some caveats are in order (whether required by the man or not): Jon Abernathy is my friend. I read the book ~1.5 times while it was being written and finalized. I read the first half through and then, when given the whole, read it over again from the start. Sara read the whole thing also. In fact, for part of our editing sessions I read it out loud and I made notes as either caught something.

This reading was in editing mode. Nonetheless, I saw so many (informationally) juicy bits that answer questions I’ve had and/or provide another angle into several other seriously “itchy” unanswered ones. I am really looking forward to sitting down with our copy and making notes for me instead of for the author. 😉 Jon has seriously extended my knowledge. But often better knowledge only leads to better/different questions. [Do not mistake that “juicy” for ‘the book contains “the dirt”‘ on anyone’s favorite brewery. That is not the case; Jon is not a mudslinger.] Also, our copy was given to us. OK, I think that’s all the disclosure needed.

Media and such:

The book’s website which includes author signing events.

Jon’s announcement at his beer blog, The Brew Site, which lists 8 locations in Bend to buy a physical copy, one in Portland, and several online links.

An interview with the author at #pdxbeergeeks.

If Facebook is your thing.

I hope to have more to say/review the book once I have re-read it on my own terms. Seems only fair.

The first couple of chapters give us good insight into the history of the region, including alcohol and Prohibition, and bring us up to Deschutes Brewery’s founding in 1988. There was brewing in Central Oregon well before 1988. It just wasn’t in Bend. Or for long.

I, personally, still have questions, in particular, about beer in Bend (and Central Oregon, generally) prior to Prohibition in 1916 [Even more particularly, before 1907-ish]. Jon has chased down an awful lot of history and done us great service, but I hope to infect him with my questions and perhaps we can both work at chasing down more answers and more interesting questions. 😀

Throughout these chapters we learn about the various industries that have driven Bend and its frequent, rapid growth.

In the next few chapters, we learn about Deschutes, the second wave of breweries, and the explosion of breweries and beer tourism. It truly is a heady ride.

Sara and I have only been here in Bend a bit over 2 years but the number of breweries in Central Oregon has more than doubled since we arrived; a good percentage of them in Bend.

Contents:

Foreword, by Gary Fish
Preface
Acknowledgments

1. Beer on the Frontier: Saloons, Isolation and Homesteads on the High Desert
2. Prohibition on the High Desert
3. Timber Town: The Boom Years
4. Recreation and Tourism
5. Laying Foundations: Deschutes Brewery and Other Pioneers
6. The Second Wave
7. The Brewery Explosion and the Rise of Beer Tourism
8. Beer Town, USA

Appendix. Timeline
Bibliography
Index
About the Author

The foreword is by Gary Fish, founder of Deschutes Brewery, and the gorgeous cover photo is by Gina Schauland, of Deschutes Brewery and Central Oregon Beer Angels.

I encourage you to buy a copy but the local libraries ought have copies fairly quickly. I asked our collection development librarian at COCC Barber Library to order a copy or two this morning. I also poked Deschutes Public Library via Twitter. Others should feel free to request their local libraries acquire it. In the meantime, there are lots of places to grab a copy locally and several online.

Librarians in the Beer Tents

Guest post from @esquetee – librarian, beer lover, and married to the Bend Beer Librarian.

The worlds of beer and libraries will collide this week in Portland, Oregon. Mark already wrote about the 27th annual Oregon Brewers Festival, also known as Oregon BrewFest or just #OBF27 for the twitter-inclined, but just a few blocks away at PSU there will be an equally exciting though blissfully smaller festival-of-sorts going on … the Library Instruction West (LIW) conference.

On Wednesday night, brave librarians of LIW will troop over to OBF for the EveryLibrary Meetup in the North Tent. Think you’ll know us by our eyeglass chains and dusty cardigans? Expect to catch a whiff of leather and paper when you stand behind us in line? Looking forward to the hush that will follow us as we move through the crowds?

Oh no, my friend. You won’t recognize us all. But if you have a fetish for the meeting of beers and books, here are some other opportunities:

To my fellow librarians, info nerds, and beer geeks – I’ll raise a toast to you at the BrewFest.

Hornsey – Brewing, 2nd ed.

Brewing BrewingI. Hornsey; RSC Publishing 2013WorldCatLibraryThingGoogle BooksBookFinder Read 28 Feb – 22 April 2014

Well-illustrated, learned, and perhaps serving multiple readers, this book, now in its new 2nd edition, is, despite being fairly heavy on the science, a useful, up-to-date, statement of the brewers art, with a little bit of up-to-date history and anthropology (Introduction).

[Note: I apologize for the somewhat mishmashed citations. Brewing science uses one of the most ridiculous citation styles ever invented. For starters, they throw out the title of a book chapter or article. I could go on but won’t.]

Contents:

  • 1 Historical Material
  • 2 Barley and Malt
  • 3 Hops
  • 4 The Brewhouse
  • 5 Fermentation
  • 6 Beer Post-Fermentation
  • 7 Achieving and Maintaining Beer Quality
  • Subject Index

I will have little to say about most sections as it is fairly science heavy but still often understandable to someone with a good basic knowledge of commercial brewing. If I were a brewer with a problem or wanting more information on a process or an ingredient then I would turn here to get pointed in the right direction. I will leave in all of the section headings so you can get a good idea of what it contains, which is no more than you can do at amazon [although amazon is showing you the table of contents for the 1st ed. at the 2nd ed. page]. Again, after the Introduction there won’t be much in the way of comments. I may leave a note or two and add context as needed but not all of my notes are of use to you as you may well be interested more in one of the many other topics covered in the book.

1 Historical Material

Hornsey’s introduction, while being both interesting and easy to read, is also erudite. He turned me on to so many interesting looking works and some possible follow-on work to something I was hoping to find more of [http://marklindner.info/bbl/2013/11/some-things-read-beer-ed/ See Samuel, D.].

He chooses two topics as his focal point in the intro: Likely Origins of Brewing and Some Notable Figures in Brewing Science. The areas of most interest for me, if measured by note-taking and citations recorded for obtaining resources, were the section on the likely origins of brewing and the last paragraph of the chapter where he ends with suggestions for several books and articles on the topic(s) at hand.

1.1 Likely Origins of Brewing

I was particularly excited to learn of his Alcohol and its Role in the Evolution of Human Society, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2012 and his A History of Beer and Brewing, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2003. I acquired a copy of each via Summit (interlibrary loan) and will definitely be ordering myself a copy of both soon.

This section also covered Delwen Samuel’s work on brewing and baking in Ancient Egypt. I had read two of his articles, both from 1996, and had hoped to find resources describing any further work. Hornsey pointed me to two of them, which can be found here http://www.ancientgrains.org/delwen_papers.html along with others.

Samuel’s work is covered on pp. 3-5 see fn 14 & 15

     fn 14 ref “With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, Samuel has demonstrated that some grains were sprouted (malted!) before being crushed and used for brewing; ….” (5)

     14 D. Samuel, “Fermentation technology 3,000 years ago — The archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer.” SGM Quarterly, 1997, 24, 3-5.

     fn 15 ref “Brewing and baking in ancient Egypt has been thoroughly studied by Samuel.” (5)

     15 D. Samuel, “Brewing and baking” in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, ed. P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw, Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, 2000, 537-76.

This section ends with some suggestions for articles and books:

“Highlights in the history of international brewing science have been summarized by Anderson, who has also documented the way in which science transformed brewing over the past three centuries, and the history of industrial brewing. A number of useful articles on brewing research and brewing history have appeared and are worth consulting, as are the books by Bamforth and Priest and Stewart.” (22)

  • R. G. Anderson, Ferment, 1993, 6, 191. [“Highlights in the history of international brewing science,” 191-8.]
  • R. G. Anderson, Brewery History, 2005, 121, 5.
  • R. G. Anderson, in Handbook of Brewing, 2nd rev. edn, ed. Priest, F. G. and Stewart, G. G., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006, p. 1. [History of Industrial Brewing, 1-38]
  • T-M, Inari, One Hundred Years of Brewing Research, J. Inst. Brewing Centenary Edition, London, 1995.
  • F. G. Meussdoerffer, in Handbook of Brewing: Processes, Technology, Markets, ed. H. M. Esslinger, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KgaA, Weinheim, 2009, p. 1. [“A Comprehensive History of Beer Brewing,” 1-42]
  • C. W. Bamforth, Brewing: New Technologies, Woodhead Pubishing, Abington, Cambridge, 2006. [See my review here http://marklindner.info/bbl/2013/08/bamforth-ed-brewing-new-technologies/]
  • F. G. Priest and G. G. Stewart ed., Handbook of Brewing, 2nd rev. edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006

From 6.6 Beer Flavour:

     “For an up-to-date account of the sensory evaluation of beer see the excellent chapter by Bill Taylor and Greg Organ, 217 a repository of important facts and references.” (269)

     217 W. J. Taylor and G. J. Organ, in Handbook of Brewing: Processes, Technology, Markets, ed. H. M. Esslinger, Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, 2009, p.675. [“Sensory Evaluation,” 675-702]

Have my hands on this and looking forward to reading it.

From 7.2.4 Foam one little nugget (amongst many):

     “Even allowing for the enormous amount of research that has been carried out into the broad subject of head retention, there is still a mysterious side to the subject, a fact that is referred to in an article by Bamforth.48” (287)

     48 C. W. Bamforth, The Brewer, 1995, 81, 396. [“Foam: method, myth or magic?” 396. [389].]

Contents:

  • 1 Historical Material
  • 1.1 Likely Origins of Brewing
  • 1.2 Some Notable Figures in Brewing Science
  • 1.2.1 Robert Boyle (1627-1691) and Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
  • 1.2.2 Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  • 1.2.3 Challenging “Spontaneous Generation”
  • 1.2.4 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  • 1.2.5 The Sedlmayrs – a Scientific Brewing Dynasty
  • 1.2.6 The Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen
  • 1.2.7 Chemists and the Brewing Industry
  • 2 Barley and Malt
  • 2.1 In the Beginning
  • 2.2 The Barley Plant and Its Domestication
  • 2.3 Barley Breeding
  • 2.4 Biochemical Structure of Barley
  • 2.4.1 Starchy Polysaccharides
  • 2.4.2 Non-Starchy Polysaccharides
  • 2.4.3 Proteins (Nitrogen; N)
  • 2.4.4 Lipids
  • 2.4.5 Other Constituents
  • 2.5 Malting
  • 2.5.1 Steeping
  • 2.5.2 Germination – and What Happens
  • 2.5.3 Kilning
  • 2.5.4 Malting Loss
  • 2.6 Other Cereals Used In Brewing
  • 2.6.1 Wheat
  • 2.6.2 Rice
  • 2.6.3 Maize
  • 2.6.4 Sorghum
  • 2.6.5 Oats
  • 2.6.6 Rye
  • 2.6.7 Triticale
  • 2.6.8 Buckwheat
  • 2.7 Specialist Malts and Adjuncts
  • 2.8 Commercial enzymes Used In Brewing
  • 3 Hops
  • 3.1 Historical
  • 3.2 The Plant
  • 3.3 Hop Varieties
  • 3.3.1 Dwarf Hops
  • 3.3.2 Hop Processing
  • 3.4 Hop Constituents
  • 3.4.1 “Sunstruck” Beer
  • 3.5 Hop Products
  • 3.6 Hop Pests and Diseases
  • 4 The Brewhouse
  • 4.1 Milling
  • 4.2 Mashing
  • 4.3 Wort Separation
  • 4.4 Sweet Wort
  • 4.4.1 Carbohydrate Composition
  • 4.4.2 Nitrogen Compounds
  • 4.4.3 Fatty Acids
  • 4.4.4 Sulfur Compunds
  • 4.5 Wort Boiling
  • 4.6 Wort Cooling
  • 5 Fermentation
  • 5.1 The Yeast
  • 5.2 Nutritional Requirements of Yeast
  • 5.2.1 Carbon Metabolism
  • 5.2.2 Nitrogen Metabolism
  • 5.2.3 Vitamins
  • 5.2.4 Inorganic Ions (Other Elements)
  • 5.2.4.1 Sulfur
  • 5.2.4.2 Phosphorus
  • 5.2.4.3 Metallic Elements
  • 5.2.5 Relationship with Oxygen
  • 5.3 Yeast: Vitality and Viability
  • 5.4 Fermentation
  • 5.5 Yeast Storage Compounds
  • 5.6 Fermentation Technologies
  • 5.6.1 Batch Fermentation
  • 5.6.2 Continuous Fermentation
  • 5.6.3 High-Gravity Brewing
  • 5.7 New Brewing Yeasts
  • 6 Beer Post-Fermentation
  • 6.1 Maturation
  • 6.1.1 Flavour Development
  • 6.1.2 Colloidal Stabilisation
  • 6.1.3 Carbonation
  • 6.1.4 Clarification and Filtration
  • 6.2 Brewery Conditioned Beer
  • 6.2.1 Kegging
  • 6.2.2 Bottling
  • 6.2.3 Canning
  • 6.2.4 Nitrogenated Beer
  • 6.3 Cask-Conditioned Beer
  • 6.3.1 The Cask
  • 6.3.2 Beer Fining
  • 6.3.3 Bottle-Conditioned Beer
  • 6.4 Low-Alcohol (LA) and Alcohol-Free Beers (AFB)
  • 6.5 A Couple of “Special” Beers
  • 6.5.1 Ice Beer
  • 6.5.2 Wheat Beer
  • 6.6 Beer Flavour
  • 7 Achieving and Maintaining Beer Quality
  • 7.1 Management and Systems
  • 7.2 Chemical and Physical Laboratory Analysis
  • 7.2.1 Gravity and Beer Strength
  • 7.2.2 Bitterness
  • 7.2.3 Colour
  • 7.2.4 Foam
  • 7.2.5 Nitrosamines
  • 7.3 Microbiology
  • 7.3.1 Rapid Identification Methods
  • 7.3.1.1 ATP Bioluminesence
  • 7.3.1.2 Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH)
  • 7.3.1.3 The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • 7.3.2 Bacteria
  • 7.3.3 Wild Yeasts
  • Subject Index

Again, a well-illustrated and learned book that can perhaps serve multiple reading publics.

I got this from COCC Barber Library [TP 570 .H66 2013]. It is a second copy of a text for the brewing certificate exam prep course that started this spring term at COCC.

Tap Into History: Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Launch Party

Oregon beer fans of all stripes will want to be at this event if they possibly can: The Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives (OHBA) is having their formal launch party titled Tap Into History at McMenamin’s Mission Theater (Portland), 28 March starting at 7 pm. This event is free and educational in the best possible way!

Beer folks in Portland—and further afield—really ought to consider being there if they can. Check out the line-up. We will definitely be there if the weather gods are cooperative. We already have a room reserved for the night at McMenamin’s Crystal Ballroom in a dash-up-and-back that Friday-Saturday. We are super-excited for this. As I mentioned back in December I have been entirely remiss from writing about OHBA here.  I hope to rectify that before (and after) this event but we are in the process of closing on a house in the next few weeks (and 1-2 weeks before this event) so no promises.

See below for links for more info but the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives is a unit of OSU Libraries & Press’ Special Collections & Archives Research Center (SCARC). It is “the first archive in the United States dedicated to preserving and telling the intertwined story of hops and beer” and its mission is “to preserve the story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon” (from the OHBA page). Their 2-page pdf brochure (pdf) can be be found here.

Here is the event flyer [full-size pdf, 1 p.]: ohba-launch-event-022814-2

Flyer for the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Tap Into History Launch Party on 28 March 2014.

Flyer for the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives Tap Into History Launch Party on 28 March 2014.

Event on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/771930049501856/

Here is the press release:

TAP INTO HISTORY WITH THE OREGON HOPS & BREWING ARCHIVES!

  • MISSION THEATER 1624 NW GLISAN ST., PORTLAND
  • DOORS OPEN AT 6:30 PM, PROGRAM AT 7:00PM, FILM SCREENINGS AT 8:30PM.
  • ALL WELCOME – PROGRAM FREE MARCH 28TH 2014

Contact Tiah Edmunson-Morton at tiah.edmunson-morton@oregonstate.edu or 541.737.7387 for more information.

Find out more about OHBA at

On March 28th we’re hosting “Tap into History,” an event at the Mission Theater in Portland to introduce OHBA to our diverse audience. We’ll bring together a panel for a public talk about brewing history in Oregon. Tiah Edmunson-Morton, OHBA archivist, will talk about the project and its impact. Peter Kopp, agricultural historian, will talk about his use of archival materials and the relevance for researchers. John Foyston, an Oregonian writer since 1987, will talk about his work documenting the Oregon beer scene. Irene Firmat, CEO and Co-Founder of Full Sail Brewing Company, will talk about her work as a female brewing pioneer. Daniel Sharp, PhD student in the OSU College of Agriculture’s Fermentation Science program, will talk about his research and the OSU program. The event concludes with screenings from Hopstories, a collection of short videos showcasing breweries in Oregon, and OPB’s Beervana, a documentary about the history of beer and the rise of craft brewing in Oregon.

Production of hops and beer are part of Oregon’s identity, engaging both the general public and the scholarly community with our rich history of researching and producing world-class hops and beer. From scholars to people with an interest in local and creative products, students to alumni, hops farmers to brewers, the opportunities for the community engagement and scholarly use are vast. Recognizing the need to document the intertwined story of hop production and the craft brewing movement in Oregon, the Special Collections & Archives Research Center at Oregon State University Libraries & Press established the Oregon Hops & Brewing Archives (OHBA) in 2013 to collect and provide access to records related to Oregon’s hops and craft brewing industries. As the first archive in the United States dedicated to hops and beer, OHBA will bring together a wealth of materials that will enable people to study and appreciate these movements.

“At its core, OHBA is a community archiving project” so come to this event to learn how you can help record and make use of the history of hops production and brewing in Oregon.

Seriously, beer/brewing/hops/history fans, be there! I hope to see you.

Some Things Read, Beer ed.

This post is my entry for Let’s Go Long in November or #beerylongreads hosted by Boak and Bailey’s Beer Blog. The goal is to go for 2000+ words on some topic related to beer. I do have a long post / article / something that I am working on but I am fairly confident that my research will not be done by 30 November so I am going to pull out a variation on an old trick from my original non-beer blog.

I used to have a weekly post called “Some things read this week.” Drop that in the search box at habitually probing generalist or simply click this link and you’ll find those posts. Of course, those were almost entirely library and information science related so perhaps you really don’t need or want to.

I have been collecting articles of interest on the world of beer for a while now. Some I have read; many I have not. Some are single finds that I found in my intermittent searches of article databases, some have been sent to me, and some are citations that I tracked down from books and articles read. I may also include book chapters where I did not read an entire book but only scanned a chapter or two. [Above written 12 Nov]

I am going to try a rough, but certainly inadequate, categorization with groupings of Health, Taste, Brewing, Archaeology and Assorted.

Health

§ Is Beer-Drinking Injurious? Science, Vol. 9, No. 206 (Jan. 14, 1887), pp. 24-25. Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1761606

I am going to lead off with one I wrote about back in March since it is simply so wonderful. I have yet to read the full paper that the short article in Science is based on but I still hope to some day. The short Science piece, all of which is reproduced on my blog at that link, is quite the doozy.

§ Casey, Troy R, and Charles W Bamforth. 2010. “Silicon in Beer and Brewing.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90 (5) (April 15): 784–788. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3884. Read 10 November 2013. Found while helping a student with a chemistry assignment. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.3884/full

“The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer” (abstract). There is no RDA for silicon but the “dietary intake of silicon in the USA is about 20-50 mg day” (784). Among some of the uses of silicon in humans is to promote increased bone mineral density, increase type I collagen synthesis, and protect from the toxic effects of aluminum ( 784; WebMD Silicon).

They tested 100 commercial examples, many of which came from “smaller independent breweries” (785). Average silicon was 29.4 ppm, which was much higher than the averages found in two previous studies (19.2 ppm / 18.7 ppm) which they attributed to those craft breweries use of more malt (785, 784). Pale malts have the highest concentration of silicon, the majority of which resides in the husk (786). Hops can have as much a four times the silicon as barley but so little is used it does not have a big effect on overall silicon levels in beer (786). As you may guess, craft beer IPAs contained the most silicon due to their large amount of paler malts and the large amount of hops (785). There was also a brewing component to this study which I will let you look into on your own. They concluded that “Beer is a substantial source of silicon in the diet” (788). Drink beer—moderately, of course—for strong bones and other health-related benefits.

§ Wright, C. A., C. M. Bruhn, H. Heymann, and Charles W Bamforth. 2008. “Beer Consumers’ Perceptions of the Health Aspects of Alcoholic Beverages.” Journal of Food Science 73 (1): H12–H17. OSU – Wiley-Blackwell. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00574.x. Read 19 April 2013/Re-read 26 November 2013.

This article discusses an examination of the perceptions consumers have of the health benefits and nutritional value of the moderate consumption of alcohol. Focus groups were used to identify themes which “led directly to the style and content of the consumer survey” (H13). The survey was “conducted at large commercial breweries at 3 locations: northern California (West Coast), eastern Missouri (Midwest), and southern New Hampshire (East Coast)” (H13). The study measured “consumers’ perceptions of the healthfulness of alcoholic beverages based on their color or appearance; consumers’ drivers of choice for alcoholic beverages; consumers’ perceptions of the content of alcoholic beverages; consumers’ sources of nutritional and health information; the credibility of these sources of nutritional and health information; consumers’ beliefs about alcohol’s role in a healthy lifestyle; and the potential impact of nutritional and health information on consumers’ actions” (H12).

They rankings for perception of healthfulness of 6 alcoholic beverages was as follows (perceived healthiest to least so): Red wines, whites wines, “light” beers, light colored beers, dark colored beers, and regular beers (H13-14). This was the same for males and females. The 14 factors in choosing an alcoholic beverage varies significantly between males and females and also by age (age groups were 21 to 30, and 30+), although taste was the #1 driver (H14). The most frequent source of health and nutritional information was doctors and magazines, with 11 other sources trailing; though, this varied by location, age and gender (H14-15). “People’s knowledge of the content of alcoholic beverages was limited” (H15). That is an understatement. This varied mostly by age, with the 21-30s being particularly confused about what is in wine, beer, tequila or vodka. Although if you look at the %s in the charts for each the 30+s have no legs to stand on either (H15-16). On a more positive note, “[t]he majority of volunteers, 75%, believed that the moderate consumption of alcohol can be beneficial to your health. Fewer than 3% … believed that this statement [was] false and 22% were not sure how they felt about the statement” (H16). There is a lot more data here and it is interesting to note much of it. They advocate for nutritional labeling on alcoholic beverages so that consumers can make more informed choices.

Taste

§ Langstaff, Susan A., and M. J. Lewis. 1993. “The Mouthfeel of Beer – A Review.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 99 (February): 31–37. Read 13-15 November 2013. Cited in Bamforth, ed., Brewing: new technologies, ch. 20, “Brewing control systems: sensory evaluation” by W. J. Simpson, p. 434.

This is basically a literature review of “the development of terminology and methods to describe [mouthfeel] and studies of the physical and chemical properties which may contribute to it” (abstract). It is organized into three sections: 1. Development of Beer Mouthfeel Terminology, 2. Physical and Chemical Parameters Which May Contribute to Beer Mouthfeel, and 3. Mouthfeel Studies Using Beverages and Beer. Subsections include History and Beer Flavor Wheel in the first section; and Foam Head, Carbon Dioxide, “Protein” (Polypeptides), Polyphenols, Chloride, Dextrins, β-Glucan, Viscosity, Alcohol, Glycerol, and Caveat in the second. The third section has no subsections.

It is a fairly short article that sadly doesn’t do much other than critique previous studies. I wish it had provided a few more definitive comments about mouthfeel or, at a minimum, had proposed further studies to further elucidate the impact of the physical and chemical properties mentioned and how they actually do or do not impact mouthfeel. According to Simpson, this is the paper that led to the modification of the Beer Flavor Wheel to include a separate mouthfeel section.

§ Gruber, Mary Anne. 2001. “The Flavor Contributions of Kilned and Roasted Products to Finished Beer Styles.” Technical Quarterly 38 (4): 227–233. http://www.fantastic-flavour.com/files-downloads/beer_flavour_wheel.pdf. Cited by Thomas, “Beer How It’s Made – The Basics of Brewing” in Liquid Bread, p. 38 Read 14 November 2013; re-read 18 November 2013.

Based on a poster presented at the MBAA Guadalajara Convention, 2001. A short, 6-page-plus article with lots of pictures and illustrations which reviews “the wide spectrum of specialty malts available and the contribution of specialty malt flavors to finely crafted specialty beers” (abstract). The introduction covers flavor and the Beer Flavor Wheel. “The Specialty Malting Process” covers exactly what it says. “Flavor Contribution (1)” covers kilned, high temp kilned and wheat malt. “Flavor Contribution (2)” covers roasted malts. “Flavor Contribution (3)” covers kilned and roasted malts. “Flavor Contribution (4)” covers roasted barley. The summary wraps things up. All-in-all, this short article contains a fair bit of useful knowledge if you aren’t already well-versed in specialty malts.

Brewing

§ Sancho, Daniel, Carlos A. Blanco, Isabel Caballero, and Ana Pascual. 2011. “Free Iron in Pale, Dark and Alcohol-free Commercial Lager Beers.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91 (6) (April 1): 1142–1147. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4298. Read 13 November 2013. Found while helping a student with a chemistry assignment.

This study compared the amount of free iron in pale, dark and alcohol-free beers in order to find a “highly sensitive, selective, rapid, reliable and inexpensive method” to measure free iron in beer (abstract). They looked at 40 lager beers (28 pale, 6 dark, 6 alcohol-free) and found the highest levels in dark beers, followed by pale, with the lowest levels in alcohol-free beers (average: 121 ppb dark, 92 ppb pale, 63 ppb alcohol-free) (1143, 1144-45). They then go on to speculate as to why the numbers are as the found them whether due to production processes or ingredients used. As they state, “It is very useful to know the free iron content in beer since it plays an important role as a catalyst in the oxidation of organic compounds that are responsible for the stability and flavour in beers” (1144). I would be particularly interested in seeing the method developed in this study used to measure the free iron in various ales, especially big NW IPAs with all of their hops and in big stouts and Imperial stouts.

§ Coghe, Stefan, Hélène D’Hollander, Hubert Verachtert, and Freddy R. Delvaux. 2005. “Impact of Dark Specialty Malts on Extract Composition and Wort Fermentation.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 111 (1) (January 1): 51–60. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.2005.tb00648.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2005.tb00648.x. Read 21 November 2013. Cited by Casey & Bamforth 2010, “Silicon in beer and brewing,” (see above).

An interesting article that looks at “the influence of dark specialty malts on wort fermentation. More specifically, the availability of yeast nutrients, the course of the fermentation and the formation of flavour-active compounds were investigated” (59). As for reduced attenuation in dark worts, it was found that lower levels of fermentable carbohydrates and reduced amino acids were the prime reason, although Maillard compounds also affect fermentation (59). Flavor-active yeast metabolites are also affected by dark malts (59). The authors claim that brewers should not worry about these results as the levels of dark malts used are way beyond what are used in practice and thus the findings are only of scientific relevance. “Thus, in normal brewing practice, no drastically reduced fermentation rates and ester profiles should be expected” (59). They suggest some further research that would help explicate some of their findings to a greater degree.

Archaeology

§ Samuel, Delwen. 1996. “Archaeology of Ancient Egyptian Beer.” Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 54 (1): 3–12. Single Journals. doi:10.1094/ASBCJ-54-0003. Read 22 November 2013. Cited in “Beer in Prehistoric Europe” by Hans-Peter Stika, in Liquid Bread, p. 57. Google Scholar.

A fascinating article from 1996 which I hoped had been followed up on but I have been unable so far to find anything further from the “ancient Egyptian beer project” as “sponsored by Scottish and Newcastle Breweries plc and carried out under the aegis of the Egypt Exploration Society” (4). There are a lot of articles which cite this one and are, in effect, followups but those are quite specific to a narrow scientific technique of analysis and not of the more general “this is how our model has evolved based on further studies.” Sections consist of the Abstract, introduction, Archaeological Approaches to Ancient Egyptian Brewing, Cereals Used for Brewing, The Search for Brewing Processes, The Case for Malting, Malting Procedures, Ancient Egyptian Brewing: Single System or Two-Part Process?, Future Research, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited. In each case, they present evidence ranging from scanning electron microscopy to linguistics, and address the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques and the interpretations derived therefrom.

Assorted

§ DeLyser, D. Y., and W. J. Kasper. 1994. “Hopped Beer: The Case for Cultivation.” Economic Botany 48 (2) (April 1): 166–170. doi:10.2307/4255609. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4255609. Read 27 November 2013. Cited in Bamforth (ed.) Brewing: New technologies, ch. 5 The breeding of hop, p. 102 and 103.

Looks at the available documentary evidence in an attempt “to distill from available evidence a chronology of the early use of hops in beer, its domestication, and worldwide dispersion” (166). From it we learn of some of the other uses for hops, including as a salad vegetable, to cultivate wild yeast, as household ornamental plants, woven as linen, as a hair rinse for brunettes, as a yellow dye, as bedding and insulation and as packing material, among others (167).

The first documentary evidence of hop usage in beer is the Statutae Abbattiae Corbej (822 A.D.) and not St. Hildegard’s usually ascribed Physica Sacra, of ca. 1150 A.D. (168). “The first actual record of cultivated hops comes from documents in the annals of the Abbey of Freisingen in Bavaria (859 to 875 A.D. and onwards) which mentions orchards with hop gardens” (169). Based on this and other evidence they infer that hop use in beer was followed by cultivation, which was driven by demand, and that it was the use in beer which led to cultivation and not something else.

§ Baxter, Alan G. 2001. “Louis Pasteur’s Beer of Revenge.” Nature Reviews Immunology 1 (3) (December): 229–232. Nature Journals Online. doi:10.1038/35105083. http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.proxy.library.oregonstate.edu/nri/journal/v1/n3/abs/nri1201-229a.html. Read 15 November 2013. Cited in “Beer and Beer Culture in Germany” by Franz Meussdoerffer, in Liquid Bread, p. 68.

Short article that informs us about Pasteur and his hatred for Germany due to the Franco-Prussian War. We learn about some of his microbiological work, along with learning about a few of his supporters and detractors, and Pasteur’s “beer of revenge.” The author seems to imply in closing that Pasteur was successful:

“His ‘beer of revenge’ was so successful that to this day, very little German beer is exported, even though some are widely regarded as being among the best in the world. The irony is that the German breweries rendered idle by Pasteur’s strategy were eventually adapted to manufacture acetone for cordite production. So, Pasteur’s vengeance indirectly helped to equip Germany for their attack on France in the First World War” (232).

Whut?! What German beer factories were rendered idle? What strategy? Being a dick to Germans and refusing to allow a translation of his Studies on Fermentation into German? I am pretty certain that it had probably been translated a couple of times into German, whether or not it had been commercially. Did the writer make this ridiculous claim so that he could use the word “ironic”? It also seems to me that those claims about factories need a citation. I don’t doubt that some breweries were converted to cordite production but that’s not the kind of claim you can just throw out without support in an immunology journal.

Germany may not be the biggest exporter of beer but let us compare a few statistics on French and German beer that are fairly contemporaneous with when the author’s claim was made (from Bamforth, Charles W. 2009. Beer: Tap into the Art and Science of Brewing. 3rd ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.):

From Table 1.2 Worldwide Brewing and Beer Statistics (2004)

From Table 1.2 Worldwide Brewing and Beer Statistics (2004)

There are only two countries in this chart even close to Germany’s export numbers: Mexico (14.5) and Netherlands (13.0). That made Germany the #2 exporter of beer worldwide in 2004. How the hell was Pasteur’s ‘beer of revenge’ successful?

From Table 1.3 Growth or Decline in Beer Volume (Million hl) Since 1970

From Table 1.3 Growth or Decline in Beer Volume (Million hl) Since 1970

Interesting and informative article. I simply do not know what to say about its conclusion.

Here are some articles that I did not get to this time. Perhaps in another edition of #beerylongreads or simply as an infrequent Some Things Read This Week. Time will tell.

Health

  • “Fiber and putative prebiotics in beer” – Bamforth & Gambill
  • “Beer and wine consumers’ perceptions of the nutritional value of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages” – Wright, et al.
  • “Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? – Bendsen, et al.

Taste

  • “Reference Standards for Beer Flavor Terminology” – Meilgaard, et al.
  • “Beer Flavor Terminology” – Meilgaard, et al.
  • “Investigating consumers’ representations of beers through a free association task: A comparison between packaging and blind conditions” – Sester, et al.
  • “Expertise and memory for beers and olfactory compounds” – Valentin, et al. “Do trained assessors generalize their knowledge to new stimuli?” – Chollet, et al.
  • “Impact of Training on Beer Flavor Perception and Description: Are Trained and Untrained Subjects Really Different?” – Chollet & Valentin
  • “Attempts to Train Novices for Beer Flavor Discrimination: A Matter of Taste.” – Peron & Allen
  • “Sort and beer: Everything you wanted to know about the sorting task but did not dare to ask” – Chollet, et al.
  • “What is the validity of the sorting task for describing beers? A study using trained and untrained assessors” – Lelièvre, et al.

Brewing

  • “The history of beer additives in Europe — A review” – Behre
  • “Studies on the Effect of Mechanical Agitation on the Performance of Brewing Fermentations: Fermentation Rate, Yeast Physiology, and Development of Flavor Compounds” – Boswell, et al.

Archaeology

  • “Brewing an Ancient Beer” – Katz and Maytag

Assorted

  • “Drinking Beer in a Blissful Mood” – Jennings, et al.
  • ““Beer, Glorious Beer”: Gender Politics and Australian Popular Culture.” – Kirkby
  • “Women & Craft Beer: Are You Making the Connection?” – Johnson “Beer Color Using Tristimulus Analysis” – Cornell

And others.

Well, this concludes my post. This should be somewhere above 3100 words so I am calling it accomplished.

Michael Jackson’s Beer Companion

Michael Jackson’s beer companion.Jackson, Michael; Running Press 1993WorldCatLibraryThingGoogle BooksBookFinder

Read 11-24 June 2013

This book, published in 1993, is a bit of a time capsule. While all of these styles are still produced by someone, the beers and breweries featured are not necessarily still produced or in business. The books is lavishly illustrated as are most of Jackson’s books. The initial section, Exploring Beer, gives a little history and discusses ingredients. The heart of the book is the 3/4s of the content where he discusses each style, along with representative beers and breweries for each. Beer and Food discusses cooking with beer, matching beer with food, and features twenty-five recipes which includes several desserts. By the way, while there are a couple of vegetarian dishes the recipes are heavily skewed towards meat. The Reference Section includes the glossary and index, and a gazetteer for hunting the classic brews he mentions (or others). It consists of countries broken down by cities or regions and lists shops, breweries and beer gardens. Again, how many of these are still in business? Nonetheless, this is an interesting and still useful book.

I got this book from OSU Valley Library via Summit. Call no. TP 577.J271 1993.

Contents

    • Exploring beer
      • Never ask for “a beer”…
      • The renaissance of beer
      • A civilized drink
      • Taking a world view
      • Malt
      • Water
      • Herbs, spices and hops
      • Yeast
      • A beer-lover’s calendar
    • Great Beer Styles of the World
      • The lambic family
        • Lambic
        • Gueuze
        • Faro
        • Fruit beer
      • Wheat beers
        • Berliner Weisse
        • South German Weizenbier
        • Belgian wheat beer
      • Ales
        • British styles of ale
          • Mild
          • Bitter
          • Pale ale
          • English brown ale
          • Old ale
          • Barley wine
          • Scottish ale
          • Irish ale
        • Belgian styles of ale
          • Belgian ale
          • Flemish brown ale
          • Belgian red ale
          • Saison
          • Belgian golden ale
          • Trappist beer
        • Bière de garde
        • Altbier
        • Kölsch
        • American ale
        • Adelaide sparkling ale
      • Porters and stouts
        • Porter
        • Dry stout
          • Oyster stout
        • Sweet stout
          • Oatmeal stout
        • Imperial stout
      • Lagers
        • Dark lager
        • Vienna-style, Märzen/Oktoberfestbier
        • Pilsner
        • Dortmunder Export
        • Bock beer
      • Extra specialties
        • Steam beer
        • Smoked beer
        • Rye beer
        • Black beer
    • Beer and Food
      • Cooking with beer
      • Matching beer with food
      • Recipes
    • Reference Section
      • Hunting the classic brews: a gazetteer
      • Glossary
      • Index